32 Some sports, or individual competitions within a sport, retain a policy of allowing only amateur sport. The Olympic Games started with a principle of amateur competition with those who practised a sport professionally considered to have an unfair advantage over those who practised it merely as a hobby., olympic athletes were allowed to receive compensation and sponsorship, and from 1986, the. 38 39 Technology technology plays an important part in modern sport. With it being a necessary part of some sports (such as motorsport it is used in others to improve performance. Some sports also use it to allow off-field decision making. Sports science is a widespread academic discipline, and can be applied to areas including athlete performance, such as the use of video analysis to fine-tune technique, or to equipment, such as improved running shoes or competitive swimwear. Sports engineering emerged as a discipline in 1998 with an increasing focus not just on materials design but also the use of technology in sport, from analytics and big data to wearable technology. 40 In order to control the impact of technology on fair play, governing bodies frequently have specific rules that are set to control the impact of technical advantage between participants.
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Both amateur and professional sports attract spectators, both in person at the sport venue, and through broadcast media including radio, television and internet broadcast. Both attendance in person and viewing remotely can incur a sometimes substantial charge, such as an entrance ticket, or pay-per-view television broadcast. It is common for popular sports to attract large broadcast audiences, leading to rival broadcasters bidding large amounts of money for the rights to show naked certain fixtures. The football World Cup attracts a global television audience of hundreds of millions; the 2006 final alone attracted an estimated worldwide audience of well over 700 million and the 2011 Cricket World Cup Final attracted an estimated audience of 135 million in India alone. 26 In the United States, the championship game of the nfl, the super Bowl, has become one of the most watched television broadcasts of the year. 27 28 Super Bowl Sunday is a de facto national holiday in America; 29 30 the viewership being so great that in 2015, advertising space was reported as being sold.5m for a 30-second slot. 27 Issues and considerations Amateur and professional Modern sports have complex rules and are highly organised. See also: professional sport and amateur sport Sport can be undertaken on an amateur, professional or semi-professional basis, depending on whether participants are incentivised for participation (usually through payment of a wage or salary ). Amateur participation in sport at lower levels is often called "grassroots sport". 2 31 The popularity of spectator sport as a recreation for non-participants has led to sport becoming a major business in its own right, and this has incentivised a high paying professional sport culture, where high performing participants are rewarded with pay far in excess.
These risks come from running, basketball, association football, volleyball, gridiron, gymnastics, and ice hockey. 24 youth sport plan in the us is a 15 billion industry including equipment up to private coaching. 25 Disabled participation see also: Disabled sports Disabled sports also adaptive sports or parasports, are sports played by persons with a disability, including physical and intellectual disabilities. As many of these are based on existing sports modified to meet the needs of persons with a disability, they are sometimes referred to as adapted sports. However, not all disabled sports are adapted; several sports that have been specifically created for persons with a disability have no equivalent in able-bodied sports. Spectator involvement Spectators at the 1906 unofficial Olympic Games main article: Spectator sport The competition element of sport, along with the aesthetic appeal of some sports, result in the popularity of people attending to watch sport being played. This has led to the specific phenomenon of spectator sport.
Despite gains during the summary last three decades, a gap persists in the enrollment figures between male and female players. Female players account for 39 of the total participation in us interscholastic athletics. Gender balance has been accelerating from a 32 increase in 197374 to a 63 increase in 199495. Full citation needed youth participation This section needs expansion. (March 2012) see also: College sport youth sport presents children with opportunities for fun, socialisation, forming peer relationships, physical fitness, and athletic scholarships. Activists for education and the war on drugs encourage youth sport as a means to increase educational participation and to fight the illegal drug trade. According to the center for Injury research and Policy at Nationwide Children's Hospital, the biggest risk for youth sport is death or serious injury including concussion.
The widespread existence of gambling on the results of sports fixtures creates a motivation for match fixing, where a participant or participants deliberately work to ensure a given outcome rather than simply playing to win. Doping and drugs main article: Use of performance-enhancing drugs in sport The competitive nature of sport encourages some participants to attempt to enhance their performance through the use of medicines, or through other means such as increasing the volume of blood in their bodies through. All sports recognised by the ioc or SportAccord are required to implement a testing programme, looking for a list of banned drugs, with suspensions or bans being placed on participants who test positive for banned substances. Violence violence in sports involves crossing the line between fair competition and intentional aggressive violence. Athletes, coaches, fans, and parents sometimes unleash violent behaviour on people or property, in misguided shows of loyalty, dominance, anger, or celebration. Rioting or hooliganism by fans in particular is a problem at some national and international sporting contests. Participation Gender participation International level women athletes at istaf berlin, 2006 This section needs expansion. You can help by adding. (March 2012) see also: Women's sports, women's professional sports, and Women's sports in the United States Female participation in sports continues to rise alongside the opportunity for involvement and the value of sports for child development and physical fitness.
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19 Sports have been increasingly organised and regulated from the kagan time of the ancient Olympics up to the present century. Industrialisation has brought increased leisure time, letting people attend and follow spectator sports and participate in athletic activities. These trends continued with the advent of mass media and global communication. Professionalism became prevalent, further adding to the increase in sport's popularity, as sports fans followed the exploits of professional athletes all while enjoying the exercise and competition associated with amateur participation in sports. Since the turn of the 21st century, there has been increasing debate about whether transgender sportpersons should be able to participate in sport events that conform with their post-transition gender identity.
20 fair play sportsmanship main article: Sportsmanship see also: Gamesmanship and Winning isn't everything; it's the only thing Sportsmanship is an attitude that strives for fair play, courtesy toward teammates and opponents, ethical behaviour and integrity, and grace in victory or defeat. Sportsmanship expresses an aspiration or ethos that the activity will be enjoyed for its own sake. The well-known sentiment by sports journalist Grantland Rice, that it's "not that you won or lost but how you played the game and the modern Olympic creed expressed by its founder pierre de coubertin : "The most important thing. Is not winning but taking part" are typical expressions of this sentiment. Cheating see also: Match fixing and cheating key principles of sport include that the result should not be predetermined, and that both sides should have equal opportunity to win. Rules are in place to ensure fair play, but participants can break these rules in order to gain advantage. Participants may cheat in order to unfairly increase their chance of winning, or in order to achieve other advantages such as financial gains.
The measurement of the result may be objective or subjective, and corrected with "handicaps" or penalties. In a race, for example, the time to complete the course is an objective measurement. In gymnastics or diving the result is decided by a panel of judges, and therefore subjective. There are many shades of judging between boxing and mixed martial arts, where victory is assigned by judges if neither competitor has lost at the end of the match time. History main article: History of sport Artifacts and structures suggest sport in China as early as 2000. 16 Gymnastics appears to have been popular in China's ancient past.
Monuments to the Pharaohs indicate that a number of sports, including swimming and fishing, were well-developed and regulated several thousands of years ago in ancient Egypt. 17 Other Egyptian sports included javelin throwing, high jump, and wrestling. Ancient Persian sports such as the traditional Iranian martial art of zourkhaneh had a close connection to warfare skills. 18 Among other sports that originated in ancient Persia are polo and jousting. Motorised sports have appeared since the advent of the modern age. A wide range of sports were already established by the time of Ancient Greece and the military culture and the development of sport in Greece influenced one another considerably. Sport became such a prominent part of their culture that the Greeks created the Olympic Games, which in ancient times were held every four years in a small village in the peloponnesus called Olympia.
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There has been an increase in the application of the term "sport" to a wider set of non-physical challenges such as video games, also called esports, especially due to the large scale of participation and organised competition, but these are not widely recognised by mainstream. According to council of Europe, european Sports Charter, article.i, sport' means all database forms of physical activity which, through casual or organised participation, aim at expressing or improving physical fitness and mental well-being, forming social relationships or obtaining results in competition at all levels.". 13 Competition There are opposing views on the necessity of competition as a defining element of a sport, with almost all professional sport write involving competition, and governing bodies requiring competition as a prerequisite of recognition by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) or SportAccord. 1 Other bodies advocate widening the definition of sport to include all physical activity. For instance, the council of Europe include all forms of physical exercise, including those competed just for fun. In order to widen participation, and reduce the impact of losing on less able participants, there has been an introduction of non-competitive physical activity to traditionally competitive events such as school sports days, although moves like this are often controversial. 14 15 In competitive events, participants are graded or classified based on their "result" and often divided into groups of comparable performance, (e.g. Gender, weight and age).
Definition see also: Game Definitions The International Olympic Committee recognises some board games as sports including chess. The precise definition of what separates a sport from other leisure activities varies between sources. The closest to an international agreement on a definition is provided by SportAccord, which is the association for all the largest international sports federations (including association football, athletics, cycling, tennis, equestrian sports, and more and is therefore the de facto representative of international sport. SportAccord uses the following criteria, determining that a sport should: 1 have an element of competition be in no way harmful to any living creature not rely on equipment provided by a single supplier (excluding proprietary games such as arena football ) not rely. They also recognise that sport can be primarily physical (such as rugby or athletics primarily mind (such as chess or go predominantly motorised (such as Formula 1 or powerboating primarily co-ordination the (such as billiard sports or primarily animal-supported (such as equestrian sport ). 1 The inclusion of mind sports within sport definitions has not been universally accepted, leading to legal challenges from governing bodies in regards to being denied funding available to sports. 12 Whilst SportAccord recognises a small number of mind sports, it is not open to admitting any further mind sports.
sport is running, while association football is its most popular spectator sport. 7 8 Contents meaning and usage Etymology The word "sport" comes from the Old French desport meaning " leisure with the oldest definition in English from around 1300 being "anything humans find amusing or entertaining". 9 Other meanings include gambling and events staged for the purpose of gambling; hunting; and games and diversions, including ones that require exercise. 10 Roget's defines the noun sport as an "activity engaged in for relaxation and amusement" with synonyms including diversion and recreation. 11 Nomenclature The singular term "sport" is used in most English dialects to describe the overall concept (e.g. "children taking part in sport with "sports" used to describe multiple activities (e.g. "football and rugby are the most popular sports in England. American English uses "sports" for both terms.
Council of Europe using definitions precluding activities without a physical element from classification as sports. 2 However, a number of competitive, but non-physical, activities claim recognition as mind sports. The International Olympic Committee (through arisf ) recognises both chess and bridge as bona fide sports, and SportAccord, the international sports federation association, recognises five non-physical sports: bridge, chess, draughts (checkers go and xiangqi, gender 4 5 and limits the number of mind games which can. 1 Sport is usually governed by a set of rules or customs, which serve to ensure fair competition, and allow consistent adjudication of the winner. Winning can be determined by physical events such as scoring goals or crossing a line first. It can also be determined by judges who are scoring elements of the sporting performance, including objective or subjective measures such as technical performance or artistic impression. Records of performance are often kept, and for popular sports, this information may be widely announced or reported in sport news. Sport is also a major source of entertainment for non-participants, with spectator sport drawing large crowds to sport venues, and reaching wider audiences through broadcasting.
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For other uses, see, sport (disambiguation). Sport british English ) or sports american English ) includes all forms of competitive physical activity or games which, 1 through casual or organised participation, aim to use, maintain or improve physical ability and skills while real providing enjoyment to participants, and in some cases, entertainment. Hundreds of sports exist, from those between single contestants, through to those with hundreds of simultaneous participants, either in teams or competing as individuals. In certain sports such as racing, many contestants may compete, simultaneously or consecutively, with one winner; in others, the contest (a match ) is between two sides, each attempting to exceed the other. Some sports allow a tie game; others provide tie-breaking methods to ensure one winner and one loser. A number of contests may be arranged in a tournament producing a champion. Many sports leagues make an annual champion by arranging games in a regular sports season, followed in some cases by playoffs. Sport is generally recognised as system of activities which are based in physical athleticism or physical dexterity, with the largest major competitions such as the. Olympic Games admitting only sports meeting this definition, 3 and other organisations such as the.