The kinetic energy then increases and increases until. It becomes enough to turn into the gaseous state of water (steam. Be dropping a drop of blood into water, the effect would result with the water all turning a reddish color and. In this case, the cooled geothermal working fluid (brine) is discharged via drains into the southampton marine estuary. The heated clean water is then pumped around a network of underground pipes to provide central heating to radiators, together with hot water services (see boyle, g 10 p 354). A scaled-down district-heating network was installed in 1989, and initially served the civic Centre, central Baths and several other buildings within a 2 km radius.
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This partnership exploits the hot brine (760 C) proved in nyu the exploratory well previously drilled by the department and the eec at the western Esplanade in central southampton (see allen, d 12 and Downing, r 13). A single geothermal well, was drilled in 1981, to a depth of heat just over 1, 800 m beneath a city centre site in southampton (Appendix 7). Near the bottom of the hole, 200 million year old Sherwood Sandstone containing water at 700 C was encountered. This is both porous and permeable allowing it to hold and transmit considerable volumes of water. The fluid itself contains dissolved salts and, as in most geothermal areas, is more accurately described as brine. Within the aquifer the brine is pressurised and so it rises unaided to within 100 m of the surface. A turbine pump, located at 650 m in the well, brings the hot brine to the surface where its heat energy is exploited. The brine passes through coils in a heat exchanger where its heat energy is transferred to clean water in a separate district heating circuit. Heat exchangers operate on a similar principle to many domestic hot water tanks in which a working fluid (also usually water passing through a coil of pipes in the tank) is used to heat water for washing. 1 page, 313 words The Essay on Kinetic Energy muscles Water Molecules. Motion, for example, when water is heated, the molecules get hot and therefore gain kinetic energy.
Therefore the future for the development of geothermal resources in the uk using heat pumps looks very promising. Aquifers due to the geographical position of the United Kingdom in relation to plate tectonics and the distribution of high heat flows, only sedimentary basin aquifers and Hot Dry rock technology (assisted by heat pumps) may be used. In the mid-1970 s, the department of Energy in association with the eec initiated a programme of research aimed principally at assessing the uks geothermal resources by the mid-1980. By 1984, new maps of heat flow (Appendix 5 a) and of promising geothermal sites (Appendix 5 b) had been produced. Three radio-thermal granite zones stand out with the highest heat flow values, but heat flow anomalies also occur over the five sedimentary basins identified, partly because these are regions of natural hot water up flow. Many shallow heat flow boreholes were drilled during this period, together with the four deep exploration well sites of (Appendix 5 b) and (Appendix 6) (see boyle, g 10 p 386). The southampton borehole has led to the development of the first geothermal energy and combined heat and power (CHP) district heating type and chilling scheme in the. Following successful trials, southampton City council formed a partnership with Utili com, a french-owned energy management company to form the southampton geothermal heating Company (see smith, m 4 p 1).
Discusses the book materials used in construction of solar hot water systems and their heat transfer properties. 0 Conduction Conduction. Heating the water leading to a higher overall efficiency. 0 Conclusion Copper is a very common metal used in solar hot water. Small water pump, which saves unnecessary use of energy. The use of convection currents to move water around the solar hot water system. This means that geothermal resources for direct use applications such as writings those listed in (Appendix 4) would be possible in the United Kingdom.
There are now many air source heat pumps that provide heating and, in some cases, reversible heat pumps that deliver both heating and cooling. The iea heat Pump Centre makes the case that heat pumps could be one of the most significant technologies currently available for utilising renewable energy to deliver substantial reductions in co 2 emissions worldwide. The figures suggest that in 1997, heat pumps in general saved only. 5 of the total annual co 2 emissions of 22 billion tonnes. It is now advocated that heat pumps could save between 6 and 16 of total annual co 2 emissions (see curtis, r 3 p 2). I asked Dr Curtis (Technical Manager, geoscience limited of the potential for the use of heat pumps in the United Kingdom. He stated that: there is enormous potential for ground coupled heat pumps to provide heating and cooling for buildings anywhere in the. words, the term Paper on Solar Hot Water Systems And Materials Of Construction.
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words, the term Paper on heat Pump. Be generalized to apply to all heat pumps. Different conditions, such as larger temperature changes in the heat exchangers, or different refrigerant mixtures could. The compressor exit for an isentropic expansion. The refrigerant mass flow rate was determined by dividing the condenser capacity by the. Uses for low and moderate temperature resources can be divided into two categories: direct use and ground- source heat pumps: Direct use, involves using the heat in the water directly for heating buildings, industrial processes, greenhouses, aquaculture and resorts.
Direct use projects utilise temperatures between. Installed capacity of direct use systems totals 470 mw or enough to heat 40, 000 average sized houses. Ground-source heat pumps use the earth or groundwater as a heat source in winter and a heat sink in summer. Using temperatures of 40 C to 380 c, the heat pump, a device that moves heat from one place to another, transfers heat from the soil to the building in winter and from the building to the soil in summer. Accurate data is not available on the current number of these systems; however the rate of installation is between 10, 000 and 40, 000 per year (see reference 17). Over 150 years ago, lord Kelvin theoretically fast demonstrated the concept of the heat pump, a thermodynamic engine capable of taking large quantities of low-grade heat and upgrading it to smaller quantities of high-grade heat using a pump or compressor. Today, the best known manifestation of this technology is the domestic refrigerator a heat pump collecting low grade energy from the inside of the fridge and rejecting to the outside at a higher temperature.
Dt is the temperature difference across a vertical height. The constant kt relating these quantities is the thermal conductivity of the rock (in Wm-10 C-1) and is equal to the heat flow per second through an area of 1 square metre when the thermal gradient is 10 C per metre along the flow direction. If for instance, the temperature is found to be 580 c at a depth of 2 km and the surface temperature is 100 c, the temperature gradient is (58-10) /2000. 0240 Cm-1 and if the thermal conductivity of the rock. 5 Wm-10 C-1, the heat flow rate. 060 Wm-2 Because the heat flow is related to the thermal conductivity of the rock, it is apparent that the potential for the exploitation of geothermal energy depends upon the geographical location.
Only in certain areas, is the heat flow great enough to make geothermal exploitation profitable. In areas of high heat flow, large quantities of heat is stored in the rocks at shallow depth, and it is this resource that is mined by geothermal exploitation and commonly used for electricity generation. Geothermal electric power generation totals approximately 2200 mw or equivalent to four large nuclear power plants (see reference 17). Away from these zones, heat is transferred in the crust by conduction through the rocks, and locally, by convection in moving ground water, to give heat flows on the continents averaging no more than 60 mW/m 2) (see laughton 8 p 61). The fact that the uk is not near a crustal plate boundary makes the possibility of finding the high temperature sources very remote. However, low enthalpy resources do occur in the uk (see batchelor, a 9 p 34). In areas of lower heat flow, where convection of molten rock or water is reduced or absent, temperatures in the shallow rocks remain much lower, and the resources are suitable only for direct use applications (Appendix 4).
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Variations in the vertical thermal gradient are also considerable, being greatest guaranteed in the vicinity of business active plate boundaries and least in the continental shields remote from the boundaries, with average values around 250 C/km (see laughton 8 p 61). The term Paper on heat Pump. which is at a higher temperature. Thus, heat pumps moves thermal energy opposite to the direction that it normally flows. Of heat) rockair heat pump (rock as a source of heat) waterair heat pump (body of water as a source of heat) geothermalwater heat pump (transfers heat. The following equation can be used to relate the heat flow to the temperature at any depth if the thermal conductivity of the rock is known. This is the heat conduction equation k tdt where q is the vertical heat flow in watts per square metre (Wm-2).
What is geothermal energy In order to evaluate the potential in the uk, i have used a variety of resources to research into the origins, distribution and geographical requirements for the different applications of geothermal energy. Geothermal energy is derived from the earths natural heat flow, which has for been estimated at some. 751016 cal / h (thermally equivalent to 30, 000 million KW) (see laughton 8 p 61). Heat flows out of the earth because of the massive temperature difference between the surface and the interior: the temperature at the centre is around 70000. This heat and therefore the source of geothermal energy exists for two reasons: first, when the earth formed from particles around 4, 600 million years ago the interior heated rapidly, largely because the kinetic energy of accreting material was converted into heat; second, the earth. The distribution of heat flow over the surface of the globe is related to plate tectonics illustrated in (Appendix 3). In the zones of active teutonism and volcanism along the plate boundaries, the heat flow peaks at values of 2-3 W/m 2 as a result of actively convecting molten rock (magma).
are involved with direct uses of warm groundwater resources. Space heating, bathing, fish farming and greenhouses represent 75 of the applications, giving a total installed capacity of 10, 000 mw thermal (see boyle, g 10 p 359). Geothermal energy was first used for power generation in 1904, when a 5 Kde prototype unit was developed at Larderello, italy. Today the larderello power station complex (Appendix 2) has a capacity exceeding 400 mw and a rebuilding programme in progress that will take the capacity to 885 mw (see batchelor, a 5 p 39). Another 20 countries now produce power with natural geothermal steam rising from deep wells drilled into hot permeable aquifers. The capacity of all the geothermal power plants amounts to 8, 000 mw electric (see iga 2 p 3).
At depths of several kilometres there is a thermal resource available to mankind. In fact 99 of the earths volume is at temperatures in excess of 10000 C (Appendix 1). This vast resource can be exploited for both electricity production and direct use applications. This report investigates whether there is a potential to exploit geothermal energy resources in the United Kingdom. History The exploitation of geothermal resources dates back to roman times where hot water was used for mechanical, domestic and leisure applications. Roman Spa towns in Britain sought to exploit natural warm water springs with simple plumbing technology. 2 pages, 661 words, the Essay parts on Types Of Energy And Energy resources. Down its energy changes from potential energy to kinetic energy. Energy resources Energy resources are stores of convertible energy.
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Words, whether the world Population stabilizes at 8 Billion or 10 Billion, both developing and developed nations will presentation call for increasing amounts of energy as they strive to achieve higher standards of living. The oil crises twenty years ago gave rise to a debate about the availability of energy, adequacy of supply and the hunt for alternatives. Today, there is no shortage of energy, the question is how can we generate and deliver more of it with less environmental impact. Hence, the quest for increased use of renewable energy supplies. Wind, wave, solar, hydro, the renewables that are, increasingly viable, variable in output and much vaunted. All of these energy sources focus primarily on the generation and delivery of electricity. While electricity is probably the most advanced and flexible form of energy devised by man, transport and the heating and cooling of buildings are two equally large consumers of energy. Hidden away, beneath our feet, is another, vast, renewable energy resource.