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Personality, description, essay - 1107
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It is appropriate for a theory of psychotherapy to concern itself with the two extremes of fullest book functioning and maladjustment. However, when theorizing about all people, two types are insufficient. Carl Rogers was most interested in improving the human condition and applying his ideas. His person-centered therapy may well be his most influential contribution to psychology. Rogers' pervasive interest in therapy is what clearly differentiates him from Maslow, despite some similarities in their ideas. The person-centered approach has had impact on domains outside of therapy such as family life, education, leadership, conflict resolution, politics and community health (Krebs blackman, 1988). In my opinion, rogers greatest contribution may lie in his encouraging a humane and ethical treatment of persons, approaching psychology as a human science rather than a natural science. Need to write a strong personal statement for college?
The "maladjusted person" gps is the polar opposite of the fully functioning individual (who was introduced early in this essay). The maladjusted individual is defensive, maintains rather than enhances his/her life, lives according to a preconceived plan, feels manipulated rather than free, and is common and conforming rather than creative (Maddi, 1996). The fully functioning person, in contrast, is completely defense-free, open to experience, creative and able to live "the good life". Empirical support for the fully functioning person is somewhat mixed. The openness to experience characteristic has been supported (Coan, 1972; cited in Maddi, 1996). However, some studies have found that openness to experience and organismic trusting did not intercorrelate, contrary to expectations (Pearson, 1969, 1974; cited in Maddi, 1996). Ryckmann (1993) notes that some studies have found non-defensive people are more accepting of others and Maddi (1996) cites numerous studies that indicate self-accepting people also appear to be more accepting of others. It is somewhat puzzling given his humanistic emphasis summary on individuality, that Rogers describes only two extremes of people. Maddi (1996) suggests these extreme characterizations of only two types may be due to this personality theory being secondary to a theory of therapy.
However, maddi (1996) raises and interesting point regarding such studies. While it has been found that self-descriptions move toward ideals after counseling and one would assume the closer a person is to full functioning the smaller the discrepancy would be, statements of ideals may be operational representations of conditions of worth, which are socially imposed. Conditions of worth are to be dissolved rather than moved toward for full functioning in this theory! While rogers sees the common human condition as one of incongruence between self and experience, this does not minimize his ultimate belief in the autonomy of human beings. Rogers (1977, p15) sees the human being as: "capable of evaluating the outer and inner situation, understanding herself in its context, making constructive choices as to the next steps in life, and acting on those choices". This illustrates a belief in agency and free will. While humans behave rationally, rogers (1961,.195) maintains that: "The tragedy for most of us is that our defenses keep us from being aware of this rationality so that we are consciously moving in one direction, while organismically we are moving in another." Unlike freud. It is only when "man is less than fully man not functioning freely, that he is to be feared (1961,.105). The human capacity for awareness and the ability to symbolize gives us enormous power, but this awareness is a double-edged phenomenon : undistorted awareness can lead to full functioning and a rich life, while distortions in awareness lead to maladjustment and a multitude of destructive.
Personality, theories, essay, bartleby
Perhaps it is because doing so might violate rogers' "intuitive sense of human freedom" (Maddi, 1996,.104). Maddi further suggests that the belief in inherent potentialities may lie in this theory's position as an offshoot of psychotherapy where it is useful for both client and therapist to have a belief in unlimited possibilities. However, applying this idea to all human beings in a theory of personality sets up the logical requirement of precision regarding what the potentialities might be (Maddi, 1996). The inherent potentialities of the actualizing tendency can suffer distorted expression when maladjustment occurs, resulting in behavior destructive to oneself and others. The actualization and self-actualization tendencies can be at cross purposes with each other when alienation from the true self occurs, so there is organismic movement in one direction and conscious struggle in another. Rogers (1977) revised his previous thinking concerning this incongruence, stating that while he earlier resume saw the rift between self and experience as natural, while unfortunate, he now believes society, (particularly western culture culturally conditions, rewards and reinforces behaviors that are "perversions of the unitary actualizing.
Rogers (1961) finds the human infant to actually be a model of congruence. He/she is seen as completely genuine and integrated, unified in experience, awareness and communication. Distorted perceptions from conditions original of worth cause our departure from this integration. There is some empirical support for the hypothesis that congruence between self and experience leads to better personality adjustment and less defensiveness (Chodorkoff, 1954; cited in Rogers, 1959). Some research has also tended to support the idea of changes in self-concept occurring as a result of therapy (Butler haigh, 1954; cited in Rogers, 1954).
Rogers' conception of self is rather broad. He does describe a variation of self: the "ideal self" which denotes the self-concept the individual would most like to possess (Rogers, 1959 but other explicit variations are not offered. Similarly, specific concepts related to identity and identity development are missing, although the self image is certainly revisable and undergoes change over the lifespan. Exactly when the differentiation of phenomenal field into self occurs is also not specified. Rogers concept of self-actualization is specifically related to the self and is thus different from Goldstein's use of the term (which matches the actualizing tendency) and also different from Maslow's which appears to incorporate both tendencies in one (Maddi, 1996).
The actualizing tendency is fundamental to this theory. Rogers considers it "the most profound truth about man" (1965,.21). He finds strong biological support for this tendency in many varied organisms. Rogers' conception of an active forward thrust is a huge departure from the beliefs of Freud and others who posit an aim for tension reduction, equilibrium, or homeostasis (Krebs blackman, 1988; Maddi, 1996). Rogers (1977) notes that sensory deprivation studies support this concept as the absence of external stimuli leads to a flood of internal stimuli, not equilibrium. While the idea of an actualizing tendency makes sense, rogers never specifies what some of the inherent capacities that maintain and enhance life might.
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However, he notes that self-acceptance is a prerequisite (1961). Rogers originally failed to recognize the importance of "self". When he began his work he had the "settled notion that the "self" was a vague, ambiguous, scientifically meaningless term which had gone out of the psychologist's vocabulary summary with the departure of the introspectionists" (1959,.200). However, through his work with clients he came to appreciate the importance of self. The "self" is described as: the organized, consistent, conceptual gestalt composed of perceptions of the characteristics of the "I" or "me" and the perceptions of the relationships of the "I" or "me" to others and to various aspects of life, together with the values attached. (Rogers, 1959,.200 this gestalt is a fluid biography and changing process, available to awareness. By using the term "gestalt rogers points to the possibility of change describing it as "a configuration in which the alteration of one minor aspect could possibly alter the whole picture" (p.201).
Maybe the modesty, and the true honest nature of Albrecht Dürer. Theoretically, an individual may develop optimally and avoid the previously described outcomes if they experience only "unconditional positive regard" and no conditions of worth develop. The needs for positive regard from others and positive self-regard would match organismic evaluation and there would be congruence between self and experience, with full psychological handwriting adjustment as a result (Rogers, 1959). This ideal human condition is embodied in the "fully functioning person" who is open to experience able to live existentially, is trusting in his/her own organism, expresses feelings freely, acts independently, is creative and lives a richer life; "the good life" (Rogers, 1961). It should be noted that; "The good life is a process not a state of being. It is a direction, not a destination (Rogers, 1961,.186. For the vast majority of persons who do not have an optimal childhood there is hope for change and development toward psychological maturity via therapy, in which the aim is to dissolve the conditions of worth, achieve a self congruent with experience and restore the. In Rogers' view (1959, 1961, 1977) personality change is certainly possible and is further a necessary part of growth.
and the methods of celebrated painters, and learning from them all that commended itself to him. We cannot really understand the artists personality unless we immerse ourselves in the study of his art, life and times. And this is the purpose of this site, to offer an in-depth look at Dürers art and his life. Biography is provided both in a short version, and in detail. And we will look at his works, engravings, paintings, and drawings, trying to discover the artists deepest thoughts, as it is said that, if you want to learn anything of his mind, search for it in his pictures. That would be the only way to discover Dürer. Apparently, none of his literary works would reveal any insight into his real heart, everything is written with cold, laconic precision. Was it really cold? What lies behind that?
The movement influenced the art more than the literature, with engravings, woodcuts, and paintings reflecting the new thinking. The study of Dürers works requires more imaginative effort than the works of the Italian Renaissance writing artists. In a typical German fashion, his art sometimes disregards the outward beauty of form, with the main intent of revealing the inner life. The art is subordinated to the revelation of the real, the inward, which latter was the subject of investigation for German philosophers like kant and Schopenhauer. And, like in the case of early german painters, the expression of the inner, emotional life, remained the ideal of Dürer. A true humanist of the time, he has an impressive contribution to literature, and according to his friend Camerarius, dürer was a master of natural sciences and mathematics. He wrote treatises on measurement, fortifications, proportion, and on artistic theory.
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Albrecht Dürer was not only the presentation greatest artist of the northern Renaissance, but also a unique personality, his genius coexisting with a pure, noble character. Indeed, looking at his self portraits, we discover the handsome man he was, with his face reflecting the purity of his soul and his intelligence. Self-Portrait, 1498 - detail, museo del Prado, madrid, his contemporaries were impressed by his physical appearance, and his mental and moral qualities, which were no less remarkable. Camerarius writes that such were the sweetness and charm of his language that listeners were always sorry when he had finished speaking. Philipp Melanchthon, writing after his friend death, said that his art, great as it was, was his least merit, as in his eyes, Albrecht the Christian was worth even more than the artist. Among all the artists investigating the classical in search of new principles of art, Albrecht Dürer stands supreme. He studied the art principles, made rigorous theoretical observations, meticulously recorded the results of his investigations, and then he gave the resulting written instructions to his contemporaries. In the 16th Century, the city was the chief centre of the german artistic life. The revival of the classical spirit of Antiquity inspired the new, original conceptions in art.