Spun in a centrifuge, it divides into layers-red cells on the bottom, a thin intermediary layer of platelets and white cells, and an upper tea-colored layer of plasma. Each layer, in turn, can be used as various therapeutic products. Red cells can be transfused directly. White cells and platelets can be used to restore resistance or clotting ability to patients undergoing chemotherapy. Plasma, a resource in its own right, yields albumin for restoring circulation, clotting factors for patients with hemophilia, antibodies for vaccine production, and several other reagents and pharmaceuticals. Taken as a whole, the value of the derivatives in a forty-two-gallon barrel of crude oil would raise its price. The price of the same quantity of completely processed blood would increase its value to more than 67,000.
Blood, transfusion - ihaematology
Why review those scandals essay erupted is one of the underlying questions of this book, a history of human blood as a resource and humanity's attempts to understand and exploit. Blood is one of the world's most vital medical commodities: The liquid and its derivatives save millions of lives every year. Yet blood is a complex resource not completely understood, easily contaminated, and bearing more than its share of cultural baggage. Indeed, the mythic and moral symbolism of blood, which has been with us since ancient times, subtly endures. It clouded professional judgments and public perceptions in the aids scandals of France, canada, and Japan, among others. If one considers blood a natural resource, then it must certainly rank among the world's most precious liquids. A barrel of crude oil, for example, sells for about 13 at this writing. The same quantity of whole blood, in its "crude" state, would sell for more than 20,000. Crude oil, as we know, can be broken down into several derivatives, including gasoline, distillates such as diesel, and petrochemicals. Blood can be separated into derivatives as well.
To them the affair was a matter of betrayal. The doctors on trial in the summer of 1992 were supposed to have embodied all that was noble in the French transfusion tradition-altruism, medicine, business, and technology. Instead, during the years of the "contaminated-blood affair" they came to symbolize the cynicism and expediency of a money-driven age. The sense of betrayal surfaced in many places beyond the courtroom in Paris. For more than a decade the theme has been sounded in one locale after another throughout the world. In America, patients have filed hundreds of civil suits against doctors, drug companies, and even their own patient organizations, for abandoning their health to the expediency of the marketplace. In England, aids-infected hemophilia patients castigated their national transfusion service with reacting too slowly to the threat of emerging viruses. In Japan, patients charged that the government and drug companies criminally concealed the contamination of blood products; as a result, some of the nation's most revered doctors have gone to jail. In Canada, the scandal of contamination spread so wide that the government held a series writings of hearings across the country that convulsed the nation with anger and shame.
In keeping with the real formality of French courts, the prosecuting and defense attorneys wore flowing black robes, which would dramatically sweep behind them as they rose to make a point. The only visible flaw in the decorum appeared among the audience members, some of whom wore t-shirts bearing inflammatory slogans. There were audible exceptions to decorum as well, as people would moan or shout "Non!" at a defendant's response, or when one man, the most vocal of the plaintiffs, would, as his doctor walked past, loudly hiss "Assassin!". The plaintiffs in this trial were dying of aids. They charged that they had been infected through the negligence of the defendants-high officials in the French national transfusion service. In France, where the government until recently held a monopoly on blood and its derivatives, these men were supposed to ensure the safety of blood products. Instead, they allowed thousands of the nation's hemophiliacs to inject blood-derived clotting factors they knew to be contaminated. The defendants had done so because of a complicated mixture of paternalism, economics, and to some extent the limits of science, but the victims saw the incident more starkly.
The list is based on the syntax for properties recommended by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory medicine (ifcc) and the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (iupac). The nomenclature is primarily from the working Party on Terminology of the International Society of Blood Transfusion (isbt). Page last modified Copyright 2003 International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry. Questions or comments about iupac, please contact, the. Questions regarding the website, please contact web manager. Preface, blood, an Epic History of Medicine and Commerce. By douglas starr, knopf, read the review, the drama ended, as do so many these days, in a courtroom. This particular chamber was long and low-ceilinged, with a wide dais at its front for the eight black-robed judges. Each of the four defendants sat flanked by tall policemen who gazed impassively from under the brims of their trademark pillbox hats.
Blood transfusion - wikipedia
Such diseases include kaposis Sarcoma, pneumocystis carnii pneumonia, and pollution serious other opportunistic girlfriend infections. After the discovery of hiv and the development of hiv-antibody test, the case definition of aids was updated to reflect the role of the virus in causing aids, but the scope of the definition remained almost the same. Hiv is primarily a sexually transmitted disease, it is transmitted by both homosexual and bisexual and heterosexual activity. The first recognized case was among homosexual and bisexual men. Many numbers of studies have shown that men who have sexual partners and those who practice receptive anal intercourse are more likely to be infected with hiv than other homosexual men.
Researchers found a strong connectio. 75(10, 2003, chemistry and human health division, properties and Units in the Clinical Laboratory Sciences. Properties and Units for Transfusion Medicine and Immunohematology (iupac technical Report). Abstract : This document is part of an ongoing effort to standardize transmission of laboratory data across cultural and linguistic domains, without attempting to standardize the routine language used by clinicians and laboratory practitioners. It comprises a general introduction and an alphabetic list of properties.
Surprising enough more then 90 percent of the men were homosexual or bisexual. Knowing this more then 70 percent of aids victims are homosexual or bisexual men, and less then 5 percent are heterosexual adults. Amazing enough by december of 1983 there were 3,000 cases of aids that had been reported in adults from 42 states, the district of Columbia, and puerto rico, and the disease had been recognized in 20 other countries. The health of the general homosexual populations in the area with the largest number of cases of the new disease was getting looked at a lot closer by researchers. For many years physicians knew that homosexual men who reported large numbers of sexual partners had more episodes of venereal diseases and were at higher risk of hepatitis b virus infection than the rest of the population, but coincidentally with the appearance of aids.
Other debilitating problems began to do appear more frequently. The most common was swollen glands, often accompanied by extreme fatigue, weight loss, fever, chronic diarrhea, decreased levels of blood platelets and fungal infections in the mouth. This condition was labeled arc (aids related complex). The isolation of hiv in 19the development of techniques to produce large quantities of the virus paved the way for a battery of tests to determined the relationship between aids and arc and the magnitude of the carrier problem. Using several different laboratory tests, scientists looked for antibodies against the hiv in the blood of aids and arc patients. They found that almost 100 percent of those with aids or arc had the antibodies-they were seriopostive. In contrast less then one percent of persons with no known risk factors were seriopostive. Aids is defined as a disease, at least moderately predictive of defects in cell- meditated immunity, occurring in a person with no known cause for diminished resistance to that disease.
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Aids Virus Essay, research Paper, the aids virus, being one online of the most fatal viruses in the nation, aids (Acquired Immunodeficiency syndrome) is now a serious public health concern in most major. Cities and in countries worldwide. Since 1986 there have been impressive advances in understanding of the aids virus, its mechanisms, and its routes of transmission. Even though researchers have put in countless hours, and millions of dollars it has not led to a drug that can cure infection with the virus or to a vaccine that can prevent. With aids being the leading cause of death among adults, individuals are now taking more precautions with sexual intercourse, and medical facilities are screening blood more thoroughly. Even though hiv ( Human Immunodeficiency virus) can be transmitted through sharing of non sterilize needles and syringes, sexual intercourse, blood transfusion, and through most bodily fluids, it is not transmitted through casual contact or by biting or blood sucking insects. The owl first case of aids were reported in 1982, epidemiologists at the center of Disease control immediately began tracking the disease back wards in time as well as forward. They determined that the first cases of aids in the United States probably occurred in 1977. By early 1982, 15 states, the district of Columbia, and 2 foreign countries had reports of aids cases, however the total remained low: 158 men and 1 woman.
In a piece of writing, the introduction makes clear to the reader the text's purpose. The noun introduction comes from the latin verb introducere, meaning "to lead." This leading in might be the formal introduction of a speaker, or the speaker's own introduction to his remarks. Or it might be the insertion of a new and different idea, as in British politician Lord hailsham's remark, "The introduction of religious passion into politics is the end of honest politics, and the introduction of politics into religion is the prostitution of true religion.". Full Definitions of introduction 1 n the act of beginning something new. Synonyms: debut, entry, first appearance, launching, unveiling, types: show 6 types. Induction the act of bringing about something (especially at an early time) product introduction the introduction (usually by an advertising campaign) of a new product or product line ushering in the introduction of something new naturalisation, naturalization the introduction of animals or plants to places. Type of: beginning, commencement, start the act of starting something n the act of starting something for the first time; introducing something new Synonyms: creation, foundation, founding, initiation, innovation, instauration, institution, origination Types: authorship, paternity the act of initiating a new idea or theory. Exordium (rhetoric) the introductory section of an oration or discourse opening the initial essay part of the introduction foreword, preface, prolusion a short introductory essay preceding the text of a book preamble a preliminary introduction to a statute or constitution (usually explaining its purpose) prolegomenon. Cannulation, cannulisation, cannulization, canulation, canulisation, canulization, intubation the insertion of a cannula or tube into a hollow body organ instillation, instillment, instilment the introduction of a liquid (by pouring or injection) drop by drop enclosing, enclosure, envelopment, inclosure the act of enclosing something inside something.
is extremelyrare. It does exist in cervical mucus. There are no known cases of transmission frommosquitoes. It is believed that a mother can pass aids to her child usually close to orduring delivery. The virus does not pass through the placenta. But it can be passedthrough breast milk. An introduction refers to a beginning — maybe presenting someone new to a group, or inserting a new idea into a project.
At first clusters of thesis homosexual men were found to have the disease. Then people with hemophilia, transfusion recipients, female and male partners of peoplewith the disease and in fants born to infected mothers were also its victims. Aids is not just a gay disease. It is critical that everyone be educated as to how this disease is spread. Aids istransmitted by direct contamination of the bloodstream with body fluids that contain theaids virus. Usually this means from contact with blood or semen from an hiv infectedperson. The virus is usually transmitted through various forms of sexual intercourse, atainted blood transfusion, or the sharing of contaminated needles.
Blood, groups, essay, human beings biology
Aids Essay, research Paper, we know that aids is caused by the hiv virus. It can be diagnosed through a simpleblood test. Frequently a person with hiv, the initial stage of aids, has no symptomsand might not even think to get tested before engaging in dangerous behavior whichcould spread the disease. Aids is the final and almost always fatal stage of hiv is a complicated illness involving several phases. The virus attacks the immune systemand leaves the body vulnerable to many life-threatening diseases caused by commonbacteria, yeast and viruses which don t usually cause disease. There have been manytheories as to how presentation the disease evolved. Most people speculate that there was a possible animal to human viral link, likelyoriginating in Africa many decades ago. The virus was isolated by the pasteur Institute inFrance in 1983.