The Union Army swept through Missouri during the early months of the war, and a confederate guerrilla insurgency emerged to counter what many considered an enemy occupation. The unfolding conflict destabilized slavery as many of Missouris nearly 115,000 slaves took advantage of the ensuing chaos and struck a blow for their own freedom. Missouri slaveholders long-term fears about the stability of slavery were suddenly realized. Even as white missourians desperately tried to isolate slaves from the political discussions of the day, enslaved people actively worked to collect and share information with one other about what the war might mean for them. According to former Missouri slave henry Bruce, slaves understood the war to be for their freedom solely, and prayed earnestly and often for the success of the Union cause. The tensions that always existed in the relations between Missouri owners and slaves became more pronounced during the war years as enslaved people became empowered by wartime events. They simply had less incentive to work hard for their owners as discipline eroded and as freedom appeared possible. White missourians recognized that the greatest threat to slavery was that their slaves would simply leave.
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In reality, abolitionists did not swarm over the border to liberate missouri slaves, but both white and black missourians understood organization that if fugitives successfully made their way to kansas, there was a good chance they would find sympathetic nursing residents who would aid them in their. Indeed, abolitionists had developed a network of safe houses along the so-called Lane Trail, a part of the. Underground railroad named after free soil politician and future. Lane, which ran north through Nebraska territory and across Iowa to freedom. The experience of living in the middle ground between the north and the south led most to move cautiously when it came to the question of disunion. In spite of their growing concerns about the stability of slavery in Missouri, most white missourians voted against secession in early 1861. Missourians goals were conservative. They wished to preserve the states social and economic institutions, including slavery. They understood that Missouris exposed border location left the state vulnerable should it side with the south. In the end, a majority of Missourians decided to remain in the Union, which posed no immediate threat to slavery in the border states. The End of Border Slavery, the crisis over Kansas statehood exposed the vulnerability of border slavery, but the explosive violence of the civil War years resulted in its ultimate destruction.
In order to ensure that outcome, a number of western Missourians staked land claims in Kansas some even moved there with their slaves, while many others crossed the state presentation line into kansas Territory to vote illegally on election days in 18Violence soon erupted between Free-soil. White missourians were troubled by the national political implications of a free soil victory in Kansas, but they were more concerned that it would destabilize slavery in Missouri. Slaveholders had long feared that Missouris border location increased the possibility of successful slave escapes, but the growing presence of Free-soil and antislavery settlers in Kansas was a grave concern. Western Missourians worried that antislavery kansans might steal or entice their slaves to flee, or, even worse, encourage their rebellion. Sensationalized slave stealing raids led by kansas abolitionists, such. John Brown and, john doy, as well as the increased number of runaway slaves who took advantage of their geographic proximity to kansas, validated their fears. Proslavery conventions and vigilante committees, such as the Platte county self Defensive association, were organized in western Missouri in response to the perceived abolitionist threat in Kansas.
Additionally, knowledge of the local geography and friendships cultivated through years of socializing served enslaved Missourians well as they approached the revolutionary moment of emancipation. Missouris Fight over Slavery in Kansas. Although most white missourians remained supportive of slavery, a small minority, primarily comprised of these newcomers, began to voice criticisms of the institution. Missouri was convulsed by dramatic demographic and political changes in the years leading up to the civil War. While by 1860 a vast majority of Missourians still had ancestral roots in the Upper south, nearly a quarter of the states residents were born in free states or were immigrants, who mostly hailed from Germany. This influx of non-slaveholding settlers resulted in a decline of enslaved people as a percentage of the total population, from 18 dates percent in 1830 to 10 percent in 1860. Kansas-Nebraska act in 1854, which allowed the new residents of the territories to determine the status of slavery, white missourians generally agreed that it was essential that Kansas become a slave state.
The average enslaved Missouri family consisted of a mother and her children living on one farm and the husband and father on another. Most men only saw their families on the weekends. Slave hiring and sales, as well as owners migration decisions and the divisions of their estates, separated countless families. In spite of these many challenges, enslaved Missourians tenaciously created and maintained strong family ties that often endured for many years. Enslaved Missourians also resisted isolation by creating social and kinship networks within rural neighborhoods. They established relationships with other enslaved people as they traveled throughout the countryside running errands for their owners, on hiring assignments, or visiting family members. Most owners allowed slaves to celebrate with family and friends at weddings, births, and funerals, as well as at work-related parties such as corn huskings, but slaves also clandestinely attended religious services led by black preachers, visited their loved ones without permission, or gambled and. These human connections forged across farm boundaries were vital to individuals self-identity and to their ability to survive their enslavement.
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The profile of most Missouri slaveholding households resembled family farms rather than plantations. Most Missouri farmers practiced diversified agriculture, raising a combination of cash crops, such as tobacco and need hemp, as well as corn and livestock. They did not require a large number of workers to farm successfully and so many searched for other ways to keep slavery profitable. The result was a system of slavery that was economically flexible. Missouri slaveholders regularly employed slaves at non-agricultural tasks and hired out their underemployed workers to their neighbors. In addition, they rarely hired overseers and instead often worked alongside their slaves, supervising and supplementing their labor in their homes and fields.
Small-scale slavery greatly influenced the work conditions and social interactions of black and white missourians. Close living and working conditions frequently eroded the authority of owners and provided slaves with opportunities to resist their enslavement. Intimate relations resulted in better treatment for some slaves, but at the same time exposed others to the worst forms of physical and psychological abuse. In the end, each owners personalities and whims determined the treatment of their slaves. The demographics of Missouri slavery profoundly affected enslaved Missourians families and communities as well. The small number of slaves living on biography individual farms forced enslaved men and women to look beyond their home for marriage partners.
Haskell, the president of the kansas Historical Society, described slavery in western Missouri as a more domestic than commercial institution, in which the social habits were those of the farm and not the plantation. Many of his white contemporaries remembered slavery in a similar way, arguing that conditions were much more favorable on the farms of western Missouri than in the cotton fields of the deep south. This belief in the mild nature of Missouri slavery has largely persisted in spite of the more complex picture painted by the men and women who actually endured enslavement in the state. Indeed, the states geographic location on the border of the slave south determined the characteristics of slavery there. Southerners who owned a large number of slaves generally chose to migrate to regions where they believed slavery was secure and where they could engage in large-scale cotton production.
Neither description applied to missouri. The states close proximity to free states, and a shorter growing season that was not ideal for the cultivation of cotton, generally discouraged the migration of large planters. In fact, slavery in western Missouri was often just as brutal as elsewhere in the south. Missouri instead emerged as a magnet for small-scale slaveholders, who were interested in practicing the diversified agriculture found in their original homes in the Upper south. The small number of slaves living on most Missouri slaveholdings altered the nature of the relationship between slaves and owners, as well as the family and community lives of enslaved people, but in the end these differences did not result in a more humane form. In the end, however, the many contradictions and tensions inherent in the small-scale system of slavery practiced in Missouri resulted in the institutions rapid collapse during the violent years of the civil War. Missouris Small-Slaveholding households, following the war of 1812, thousands of white settlers from the Upper south, many bringing their slaves, flooded into the fertile river bottomlands of western Missouri. These new Missourians—both black and white—quickly set about building farms and communities that resembled those they left behind in their eastern homes. Over time, however, they created a distinctive society that was profoundly shaped by the experience of small-scale slavery on the eve of the civil War, over 90 percent of Missouri slaveholders owned fewer than 10 slaves.
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1979, 1986 harperCollins Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012 Word Origin and History for which roles pron. Old English hwilc (West Saxon) "which short for hwi-lic "of what form from Proto-germanic *khwilikaz (cf. Old Saxon hwilik, old Norse hvelikr, Swedish vilken, Old Frisian hwelik, middle dutch wilk, dutch welk, old High German hwelich, german welch, gothic hvileiks "which from *khwi- "who" (see who ) *likan "body, form" (cf. Old English lic "body see like (adj.). In Middle English used as a relative pronoun where modern English would use who, as still in the lord's Prayer. Old English also had parallel forms hwelc and hwylc, which disappeared 15c. Show More Online Etymology dictionary, 2010 douglas Harper Idioms and Phrases with which In addition to the idioms beginning with which also see: Show More The American Heritage Idioms Dictionary copyright 2002, 2001, 1995 by houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Less business than 40 years after the civil War, general John.
and nonrestrictive clauses. The rule that which can be used only with nonrestrictive clauses has no basis in fact. In edited prose three-fourths of the clauses in which which is the relative pronoun are restrictive: A novel which he later wrote quickly became a bestseller. M Unabridged, based on the random house Unabridged Dictionary, random house, inc. British Dictionary definitions for which determiner used with a noun in requesting that its referent be further specified, identified, or distinguished from the other members of a classwhich house did you want to buy? (as pronoun)which did you find? (used in indirect questions)I wondered which apples were cheaper whatever of a class; whicheverbring which car you want (as pronoun)choose which of the cars suit you used in relative clauses with inanimate antecedentsthe house, which is old, is in poor repair as; and that: used. Show More, word Origin, old English hwelc, hwilc; related to Old High German hwelīh (German welch Old Norse hvelīkr, gothic hvileiks, latin quis, quid xref, see that Collins English Dictionary - complete unabridged 2012 Digital Edition william Collins Sons.
(used relatively to represent a specified or implied antecedent) the one that; a particular one that: you may choose which you like. (used in parenthetic clauses) the thing or fact long that: he hung around for hours and, which was worse, kept me from doing my work. Who or whom: a friend which helped me move; the lawyer which you hired. Show More adjective what one of (a certain number or group mentioned or implied)?: Which book do you want? Whichever ; any that: go which way you please, you'll end up here. Being previously mentioned: It stormed all day, during which time the ship broke. Show More, origin of which before 900; Middle English; Old English hwilc, hwelc, equivalent to hwe- (base of hwā who ) -līc body, shape, kind (see like1 cognate with Old Frisian hwelik, dutch welk, german welch, gothic hwileiks literally, of what form. Can be confused that which (see usage note at that usage note, the relative pronoun which refers to inanimate things and to animals: The house, which we had seen only from a distance, impressed us even more as we approached.
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Hwich, wich, see more synonyms on m pronoun what one?: Which of these do you want? Which do you want? Whichever ; any one that: Choose which appeals to you. (used relatively in restrictive and nonrestrictive clauses to represent a specified antecedent The book, which I read last night, was exciting. The socialism which Owen preached was unpalatable to many. The lawyer represented five families, of which the costello family was the largest. (used relatively in restrictive clauses having night that as the antecedent damaged goods constituted part of that which was sold at the auction. (used after a preposition to represent a specified antecedent the horse on which I rode.