A discourse is never pure; there always exist some counter -discursive element because without it change will not exist. Change also requires a means of communication and self-representation. Without it, a person will only see what the discourse provides him and it will be limited to the said society (Foucault, 1980). He also believed that truth is the political-economic force that commands the power in society. He explains that: Truth' is to be understood as a system of ordered procedures for the production, regulation, distribution, circulation and operation of statementsâ.'Truth' is linked in a circular relation with systems of power which produce and sustain it, and to effects of power which. A 'regime' of truth.
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But, foucault admits that this type of truth is neither true nor false. Truth is constructed whereas power is created. Power generated through discourse can allow parents to beat children if they disobey pdf thus discourse is the key. If power changes through resistance of any kind then truth and knowledge also change accordingly. There will always be this connection between them (Foucault, 1980). New Historicism also agree to this concept that truth is fabricated and constructed. For them, knowledge is independent of perspective. The western people create knowledge about non-western people which is totally based on their perceptions only. Foucault explains in great length what power is and why people do some irrational actions for. It has some very serious disadvantages. According to him, morality does not exist in absolute form, it is created through power.
We can say that isolated family few people create the personality and identity of the child (Foucault, 1980). According to foucault (1980) other attributes that are created by discourse are truth, morality and meaning. He does not focus on individual power; he says the society also possesses some knowledge. Thus discourse is created when society uses its knowledge. Power spreads in different forms and creates certain knowledge and truth. We can say that power determines truth, and as the system of society change so does the truth. Hence, foucault's discourse is related to any information which creates knowledge and knowledge helps in the creation of truth. Thus it is like a ripple effect.
Irrespective of organizational structure, there are methods and chance for people to create power center or fiefdoms. These can be created by individuals or group of employees. The knowledge about these power centers can help the employee or manager to get things done in the organization. For example, if the design team in any organization have created power center then it will be easier for them to give approval of product ideas despite the fact that they might not have been approved by marketing team after careful consideration. Or if marketing team has disproportionate power then they can insist development of product that might not be suitable for accomplishing organizational goals. Power - foucault's view, discourse can be simply defined as conversation or information. For Michel foucault, disclosure was through knowledge. He says that if an individual is the sum of his/her knowledge then those who have control on the experience of their early life also have greater power. More people in a family means that the knowledge of a child is enriched by many minds, and in isolated family it means is limited to restricted amount online of knowledge.
It is the most common power structure used by companies all around the world. In this structure, usually employee report to one manager/superior only (Nielsen). Flat and Matrix Organizations, flat and Matrix organization structures follow a system in which many past layers of management have been removed so that the employees also become a member in the decision making power of the company (Nielsen). One employee is answerable to more than one manger. It is followed by companies which function in manufacturing or designing. Due to interaction of different departments, one employee might be accountable to manager operations as well as manager sales. The power structure in these organizations will also be intersecting.
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Following are the three basic responses to the types of powers discussed above (Belen, 2008). Resistance - when the receiver resist the power in posted an arrogant manner without any apparent cause. This is mostly in response to coercive power. Compliance - act in accordance with the power used but withholding extra effort and exerting minimal energies to accomplish the task. It is most likely to be a response of Reward and Legitimate power. Commitment - using full energy and effort to satisfy the request by leader.
It is a response of Referent and Expert power. Power structure, organizational chart of any company shows the position of each person in the hierarchy of the company. The more a person is near to the top of the chart is the most power they have in the organization. However, power structure of any organization is not limited to the hierarchy; it is different form the formal organizational structure (Nielsen). Hierarchical Power Structure, in an organization where power is directly proportional to the position in the hierarchy then it is called hierarchical power structure. Power in an organization usually means ability to give orders, and in hierarchy power is reduced in downward direction throughout the organization.
These people are valued for their expertise such as problem solving skills. These people have influence on other people and their ideas, opinions and decisions are highly regarded. They are also more likely to be promoted at early stage of their career. Managers with exceptional interpersonal skills or engineers with technical breakthrough are some of the examples of people with expert power. Referent Power, as compared to legitimate power and reward power which are relatively based on objective facts, referent power is abstract.
The base of referent power is on identification, loyalty or charisma of a person. It is derived from the interpersonal relationship of a person with his/her peers. People admire them and respect their opinion. People with referent power are also influential due to their charisma. It can also be derived from connections of a person with someone at an influential position such as ceo. Possible responses of Power, different type of power stimulates a different response from the receiver.
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It arise form the ability of a person to allocate incentives in the organization. For example, a manger may control rewards of his subordinates; these rewards could be salary increments, bonus, praise, job assignment and recommendation for promotion or interesting assignment. The greater number and importance of rewards handled by manager means the higher is rewards power. If it is used properly then it promotes motivation among employees and if favoritism is exercised then it can demoralize them and affect their performance. Personal Power, expert power. The power derived from the knowledge of an individual on a specific topic or field is known as expert power. The more exclusive and important the knowledge, is, the fewer the people who have mini access to such power.
For example a manger can assign any task to his/her subordinate and those who refuse to do them could be reprimanded or terminated. Such a power is possessed by manager, director or chief executives (ceo, cfo etc.). Coercive power, when psychological, physical or emotional force is used in order to bend the will of a person then it is known as coercive power. Today, in most organizations need the coercive power is shown by verbal/ written reprimands, disciplinary actions, fines, demotion and termination. For example, threatening an employee with termination in case he refuses to work on a holiday. This power can however also be used to ensure that the employees are following the policies of the organization. Reward Power, the power of a person to give or withhold rewards of subordinates is known as reward power.
responsible for coordination of activities, delegation of tasks and handling other details of the activities of their subordinates. However, other employees also affect each other through use of their power. The source of this power are various such as structure and policies of organization, expertise and skills to handle resources and interpersonal skills of an individual. Sources of Power, power of a person could be due to professional (formal) position in organization or it could be personal. In any organizational setting there are five sources/kinds of power (Griffin, 2005). Legitimate power, the power that any employee has due to his/her position and hierarchy is known as legitimate power. It is also known as positional power.
However there are also two sides of power; positive and negative. It can be used in positive way to suppress tyrannies, get freedom and establish democracies. But, in our daily lives, we see that even if the causes are good, the means of exerting power for these positive issues are sometimes very cruel and harsh. Usually words like violence, dominance and manipulation are associated with power hence it is perceived to be negative. But it can be made write positive and creative by those organizational media which shape power in any organization can shape it either ways (Clegg, courpasson, phillip, 2006). Power in organizations, all organizations require power to establish coordination of will and energies of employees to achieve the goals and establish a reputation in the market. Power for any organization is like oxygen. When we consider power in context of organization then it refers the influence of an individual on the activities of other people.
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Print, reference this, published: 23rd March, 2015, power is yardage important part of any organization, institute or individual. The use of power is at discretion of the one who possess. This paper discusses the concept of power in and organization and its structure and ideology. It also covers the relationship of power with truth, symbolism and culture. Power is linked with different attributes that a person has, those characteristics and traits are also highlighted in this paper. Power is defined as imposing you will on the behavior of someone else, and this will is resisted by the people on whom it is exerted regardless of the situation or basis of obedience (Clegg, courpasson, phillip, 2006). Power is a source of pleasure for those who impose it on others.