We are, doubtless, in the main logical animals, but we are not perfectly. Most of us, for example, are naturally more sanguine and hopeful than logic would justify. We seem to be so constituted that in the absence of any facts to go upon we are happy and self-satisfied; so that the effect of experience is continually to contract our hopes and aspirations. Yet a lifetime of the application of this corrective does not usually eradicate our sanguine disposition. Where hope is unchecked by any experience, it is likely that our optimism is extravagant. Logicality in regard to practical matters (if this be understood, not in the old sense, but as consisting in a wise union of security with fruitfulness of reasoning) is the most useful quality an animal can possess, and might, therefore, result from the action. That which determines us, from given premisses, to draw one inference rather than another, is some habit of mind, whether it be constitutional or acquired. The habit is good or otherwise, according as it produces true conclusions from true premisses or not; and an inference is regarded as valid or not, without reference to the truth or falsity of its conclusion specially, but according as the habit which determines.
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In like manner, darwin, while unable to say what the operation of variation and natural selection in any individual case will be, demonstrates that in the long run they will, or would, adapt animals to their circumstances. Whether or not existing animal forms are due to such action, or what position the theory ought to take, forms the subject of a discussion in which questions of fact and questions of logic are curiously interlaced. Ii, the object of reasoning is to find out, from the consideration of what we already know, something else which we do not know. Consequently, reasoning is good if it be such as to give a true conclusion from true premisses, and not otherwise. Thus, the question of validity is purely one of fact and not of thinking. A being the facts stated in the premisses and B being that concluded, the question is, whether these facts are really so related that if A were b would generally. If so, the inference is valid; if not, not. It is not in the least the question whether, when the premisses are accepted by the mind, we feel an impulse assignment to accept the conclusion also. It is true that we do generally reason correctly by nature. But that is an accident; the true conclusion would remain true if we had no impulse to accept it; and the false one would remain false, though we could not resist the tendency to believe.
In the same way, every work of science great enough to be well remembered for a few generations affords some exemplification of the defective state of the art of reasoning of the time when it was written; and each chief step in science has been. It was so when lavoisier and his contemporaries took up the study of Chemistry. The old chemist's maxim had been, "Lege, lege, lege, labora, entry ora, et relege.". Lavoisier's method was not to read and pray, but to dream that some long and complicated chemical process would have a certain effect, to put it into practice with dull patience, after its inevitable failure, to dream that with some modification it would have another. The darwinian controversy is, in large part, a question of logic. Darwin proposed to apply the statistical method to biology. The same thing has been done in a widely different branch of science, the theory of gases. Though unable to say what the movements of any particular molecule of gas would be on a certain hypothesis regarding the constitution of this class of bodies, Clausius and Maxwell were yet able, eight years before the publication of Darwin's immortal work, by the application.
Four centuries later, the database more celebrated Bacon, in the first book of his novum Organum, gave his clear account of experience as something which must be open to verification and reexamination. But, superior as Lord Bacon's conception is to earlier notions, a modern reader who is not in awe of his grandiloquence is chiefly struck by the inadequacy of his view of scientific procedure. That we have only to make some crude experiments, to draw up briefs of the results in certain blank forms, to go through these by rule, checking off everything disproved and setting down the alternatives, and that thus in a few years physical science would. "He wrote on science like a lord Chancellor indeed, as Harvey, a genuine man of science said. The early scientists, copernicus, tycho Brahe, kepler, galileo, harvey, and Gilbert, had methods more like those of their modern brethren. Kepler undertook to draw a curve through the places of Mars; and to state the times occupied by the planet in describing the different parts of that curve; but perhaps his greatest service to science was in impressing on men's minds that this was the. He accomplished this by his incomparable energy and courage, blundering along in the most inconceivable way (to us from one irrational hypothesis to another, until, after trying twenty-two of these, he fell, by the mere exhaustion of his invention, upon the orbit which a mind.
The history of its practice would make a grand subject for a book. The medieval schoolman, following the romans, made logic the earliest of a boy's studies after grammar, as being very easy. So it was as they understood. Its fundamental principle, according to them, was, that all knowledge rests either on authority or reason; but that whatever is deduced by reason depends ultimately on a premiss derived from authority. Accordingly, as soon as a boy was perfect in the syllogistic procedure, his intellectual kit of tools was held to be complete. To roger Bacon, that remarkable mind who in the middle of the thirteenth century was almost a scientific man, the schoolmen's conception of reasoning appeared only an obstacle to truth. He saw that experience alone teaches anything - a proposition which to us seems easy to understand, because a distinct conception of experience has been handed down to us from former generations; which to him likewise seemed perfectly clear, because its difficulties had not yet. Of all kinds of experience, the best, he thought, was interior illumination, which teaches many things about Nature which the external senses could never discover, such as the transubstantiation of bread.
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Even in the essay huge hangar, it was difficult for me to get far enough away to take a wide shot of the front portion of the fuselage, which extends from just aft of the bombardier's nose cone to the wing mounting points. The area immediately surrounding each fuselage component is fairly open to allow easy access for the workers. . However, all the machine tool working areas further away were cordoned off from us tourists and I made the picture of the nose and flight deck with my back literally up against one of the work tables. . The exterior skin has been cleaned on this side of the aircraft, but the inauthentic paint on the interior hasn't been removed yet. Memphis Belle, april, 2009: Fuselage And Flight Deck.
After the process of restoring the memphis Belle is completed, the aircraft will be moved from the restoration hangar to the dayton museum, whose exhibit halls already include a faithfully restored B-17 (a later G model) and the b-29 Superfortress that dropped the atomic bomb. Chris Kern, washington,. The fixation of Belief, the fixation of Belief, charles. Popular Science monthly 12 (november 1877 1-15. Few persons care to study logic, because everybody conceives himself to be proficient enough in the art of reasoning already. But i observe that this satisfaction is limited to one's own ratiocination, and does not extend to that of other men. We come to the full possession of our power of drawing inferences, help the last of all our faculties; for it is not so much a natural gift as a long and difficult art.
we were told the museum has made one concession to historical fidelity: when the aircraft is repainted, a latex-based pigment will be used to avoid exposing the workers to the oil-based paint used during the war. Pin-Ups too fat, even the pin-up girls in their blue and red bathing suits on either side of the airplane, repainted during an earlier restoration effort, have been deemed deficient; the museums curators decided after examination of wartime photographs of the plane that the pin-ups. to accommodate tours such as the one i attended, the blue pin-up on the port side of the aircraft has been left in place. . In one of the final stages of the restoration, the nose art will be repainted to its original appearance. The tail assembly appears to be fully repaired except for the brackets at the tip that were used to mount the twin machine guns. . This was the only part of the fuselage that seemed small to me; one can only imagine what it must have been like for the tail gunner, crouching and cooped up under enemy attack in that small space at the very back of the airplane.
Only the gunner who was suspended in the Plexiglas belly turret under the aircraft—which we on the tour didn't see, although we had a good view of the hole in the underside of the fuselage where the ball turret fit—had a worse job. Memphis Belle, april, 2009: tail Section Restored and Stripped of paint. One of the more striking photographs I came away with—an interesting image independent of the subject matter—is a cross-sectional view of the portion of the fuselage where the waist gunners fired their machine guns out of open window ports on each side of the airframe. . The interior will be left bare of paint because it wasn't painted during the war. . (I presume that was to save weight, but forgot to ask.) In battle, the open windows allowed piercing sub-zero winds to enter the aft section of the aircraft. . Gunners whose skin made even momentary contact with exposed metal typically suffered instant frostbite. Memphis Belle, april, 2009: waist Section Under Restoration.
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To take a look—and snap a few photographs for my 94-year-old father. Memphis Belle, april, 2009: Air Force museum Restorers Are Stripping Inauthentic paint. The museum staff is intent on making the restored aircraft as authentic as possible, even components that won't be visible when the airplane is put on permanent display. . The attention to detail is quite extraordinary. . For example, the original wiring bundles are being preserved or restored with authentic materials. . Some of the exposed wiring was torn out by vandals during the many years the belle was in Memphis or had deteriorated beyond repair. . However, a tour guide explained that the museum has obtained a large stock of vintage cable that will be used to recreate those wires, even though we will never actually run any current through them. The fuselage is in sections and the wings have been removed to allow different statement teams to work on the components independently. . All the paint is being stripped from the metal parts since most of it is inauthentic, having been applied after the war during previous restoration attempts in a manner that didn't meet to the museum's rigorous standards. .
Postwar Rescue, after the war, most of the nearly 13,000 B-17s manufactured by the boeing Company were reclaimed for scrap metal. . Alerted to its imminent fate by a newspaper reporter who recognized the famous airplane while it was sitting in an aircraft boneyard in Altus, oklahoma, the mayor of Memphis arranged to purchase number for 350. . The belle was flown to memphis in July, 1946—its last flight—and displayed in several locations in the city for the better part of half a century. . It experienced significant deterioration, despite the preservation efforts of the city and a private memphis Belle memorial Association, due to the effects of weather and vandals; the latter made off with all its flight instruments and many other removable parts. In 2005, the airplane was disassembled and relocated to a hangar at Wright-Patterson Air Force base in dayton, Ohio, where a staff of paid and volunteer restorers working for the. National Museum of the. Air Force is meticulously returning it to its wartime appearance. . tours of the restoration hangar are available to members of the public by appointment, and in April, 2009, i made a quick trip to dayton from my home in Washington,.
in the motion picture. Lady for a night became one of the first to complete the requirement, on may 17, 1943. Morgan and nine other 25-mission survivors returned to the United States to fly the belle on a three-month public relations tour—its 26th mission—to sell war bonds. . The airplane and its crew generated considerable interest among the press and public not only for completing 25 missions—actually, at least one other B-17 achieved that milestone before the memphis Belle did—but also because they were the subject of a 41-minute documentary film by hollywood. Front-Page notice, wyler's film, titled, the memphis Belle: a story of a flying Fortress. Was released in April, 1944, and was a nationwide sensation. . President Franklin roosevelt told Wyler following a white house screening that the film had to be shown right away, everywhere. . The new York times published a rave review by critic Bosley crowther, itself unusual for a propaganda movie made by the war Department, and also a front-page story and an editorial about the film. The memphis Belles crew was skillful as well as lucky—morgan appears to have been a gifted pilot—but the airplane's enduring status as an icon is largely attributable to the wyler film. . (Morgan once asked Wyler what he would have done if the belle was shot down; Wyler replied without missing a beat that it wouldnt be a problem because he had selected another airplane that was about to complete 25 missions to serve as an understudy.) .
The structure of the airframe could maintain its integrity even when hit by shrapnel from flak—the English-speaking allies borrowed the acronym from the german term flugabwehrkanone (air defense cannon)—or by gunfire from attacking German fighter aircraft, whose pilots quickly adapted to the bomber combat box. Although the frame of the b-17 could take a lot of punishment, its aluminum skin was easily punctured; a man could poke a screwdriver through. . Its engines could be disabled by enemy gunfire and its large wing tanks of aviation fuel were an ever-present fire hazard. . even if the aircraft held together, and its engines didnt fail, and its fuel didnt catch fire, airmen flying an unpressurized bomber at high altitude were vulnerable to shells or shrapnel that penetrated its interior, frostbite and hypothermia caused by air temperatures of 50 degrees. Crew members who bailed out over Germany and survived the jump were sometimes killed by angry civilians for participating in the allied terror bombing campaign. Flak, the lutfwaffes fighters, and the inevitable accidents due to weather, pilot error and mechanical failure were to take an appalling toll. . More than 60 percent of the b-17s flown during the war by the 91st Bomb Group stationed at the royal Air Force base in Bassingbourn, east Anglia, to which number was assigned, were lost or so badly damaged they had to be scrapped. . Of the approximately 5200 crew members who flew the missions, 20 percent were killed or missing in action; another 18 percent were captured after bailing out over enemy territory. 25 Missions, it wasnt long after the American missions began in the summer of 1942 that it became apparent to the bomber crews that many would not survive the 25 missions required to make them eligible for reassignment back to the United States. .
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On September 30, 1942, when B-17F heavy bomber touched down in Prestwick, scotland, following a 12-hour flight across the database Atlantic Ocean, the American contribution to the air war against Germany was just beginning. After incurring unacceptable losses in their respective raids against each others territory, the german and British air forces had abandoned daytime bombing—and all but the barest pretense of aiming at purely military targets—in favor of attacking each others cities. . Both sides essentially adopted a revised definition of strategic bombing: the strategy now was to undermine the civilian populations will to fight by targeting metropolitan areas at night, which would presumably induce the enemys political leadership to sue for peace. The commanders of the United States Army air Forces, however, were determined to implement their doctrine of destroying the enemys capacity to fight through precision daylight bombing against specific military and industrial installations. . While the necessity of a long-range fighter escort that could accompany the bombers on deep penetration raids would ultimately become evident to the American commanders, in this first phase of the campaign against Germany they were convinced that a combat box of well-armed bombers, flying. Memphis Belle in Flight over England, june 9, 1943. The b-17 was a rugged machine. . It acquired a reputation for being able to sustain severe battle damage and still make it back to England. .