Under the benign conditions. Pax Britannica, the population grew beyond the capacity of agricultural production. In true malthusian fashion, famines ensued, resulting in a "positive check" on population growth. From this perspective, famines occurred in India because the British had "freed a tropical population from the tropical checks on its increase, without yet teaching it to submit to prudential restraints.". Even with this rosy view of the success of British rule, the question of how the government ought to respond to famine remained. Followers of Malthusian ideas suggested that famine relief be minimal. While this might lead to starvation deaths in the short run, the fatalities would be from the poorest class of laborers and beggars, a "class of men—so low in intellect, morality, and possessions" that their continued survival and reproduction would only worsen the situation.
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These famines, which occurred with shocking regularity from the summary 1860s onwards, led some administrators to question whether India was a land depleted of resources straining to support an excessively large population. Previous Indian rulers had also confronted famines, and the subcontinent was vulnerable to such crises because of its dependence upon esl monsoon rains. However, the British were the first to develop an official policy that mandated specific responses to famine conditions. To frame this policy, some administrators turned to Thomas Robert Malthus's. Essay on the Principle of Population. First published in 1798, malthus's, essay argued that population growth, if unchecked, would always exceed capacities of food production. According to malthus, population growth could be limited either by preventive checks, which lowered the birth rate, or positive checks, which raised the death rate. Preventive checks included such measures as postponement of marriage, celibacy, or contraception, whereas positive checks involved war, disease, or starvation. The, essay proved enormously influential, and nowhere more so than in India. For some British administrators, malthus's "positive checks" seemed to explain recurrent famines. They suggested that British rule had created the conditions for rapid population growth across India by ending civil strife and curbing disease.
A densely populated area london signified fertile land, the availability of labor, good governance, and peaceful conditions. Small populations, by contrast, were seen as a sign of decline. A, maratha official touring the war-torn, mughal territories near Delhi and Agra in 1784 remarked with concern that "there were no ripening fields to be seen anywhere The local administration was already oppressive—on top of that came the failure of the rains and the peasants. In the early nineteenth century, when the. British East India company controlled an increasing swath of territory across the subcontinent, company officials pronounced that large and expanding populations demonstrated the superiority of British governance. In the words of one company publicist in 1815, "It is pleasing to view the cheerful bustle and crowded population evincing a sense of security, and appearance of happiness, seen in no part of India beyond the company's territories.". This longstanding equation of large populations with prosperity and good government began to change by the mid-nineteenth century, when British officials confronted a series of famines across the subcontinent.
In more recent years, some in the United States and Europe have argued that this large population poses a global threat, as Indians consume an ever-increasing portion of the world's resources in a bid to satisfy an ever-growing population. Population numbers seem to support these concerns. The population of India has grown rapidly over the last sixty years, from about 350 million in 1947 to approximately.16 billion today. Although the rate of growth has now slowed, India's population size is about still increasing, and demographers expect it to reach.65 billion people by 2050, making India the most populous country on earth. The numbers alone cannot tell us the full story, however. The debates about Indian population size have also focused on the related question of under-production—that is, the problem is not so much too many people as too little food. For more than two centuries, the question — is India really "overpopulated" at all?—has been hotly contested and bound up with broader tensions about political power, economic development, and access to global resources. Population and Prosperity in the nineteenth Century. In early modern India, a large population was typically taken to be a sign of prosperity and progress.
To explain this food crisis to an audience. Louis in may 2008, then-President george. Bush pointed to the size of the Indian population. Claiming that India's "middle class is larger than our entire population bush argued that the demand for "better nutrition and better food" among this massive group had caused food price increases worldwide. Bush's remarks provoked an uproar among Indians, who refused to accept blame for the global food crisis. Many Indian journalists and government officials instead linked the spike in food prices to American policies that favored using grains for ethanol fuel and subsidized. Others, like analyst Pradeep Mehta, argued that if Americans would just reduce their weights to the Indian middle class average, "many hungry people in sub-Saharan Africa would find food on their plates.". This heated exchange marked another episode in a longstanding debate about whether India is an "overpopulated" place. Since the early nineteenth century, some observers—Indians and others—have remarked that India's population is too large for the country's resources to sustain.
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9 Peter Trudgill, jean Hannah, International English. A guide to the varieties of Standard English. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002) 107. 10 Arends, muysken, Smith 3-4. 11 da pidgin Group. Pidgin and Education, a position Paper, november analysis 1999, University of Hawaii,.
12 Tom McArthur, Oxford guide to world English, (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003) 402. Holm, pidgins and Creoles, vol. Ii (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989) 517-518. 17 da pidgin Group,. 22 da pidgin Group,. In the weeks and months prior to the current financial crisis, much of the world media was reporting on a global crisis in food. A seemingly inexorable rise in the price of basic food supplies in threatened poor populations around the world, and government leaders scrambled to contain the social unrest that followed.
From the 1920s on, hce, as it can now be called, is the language of the majority of Hawaiis population.22. Most Hawaiians did not have contact with Standard English speakers until after the 1930s, when the depression forced the plantations to cut jobs. Former plantation workers began moving into more skilled jobs and seeking more education for their children.23 Because of the second World War, the arrival of a large number of military and civilian employees from the mainland increased the opportunities to use Standard English. Therefore, hce was considered as a liability on the job market and as an indicator for a lower status.24. 1 Peter Mühlhäusler, What is the Use of Studying Pidgin and Creole languages?
Language Sciences 14 (1993 310. 3 Victoria fromkin, robert Rodman, nina hyams, An Introduction to language, seventh Edition (Boston, massachusetts: Thomson heinle, 2003) 470. 4 Fromkin, rodman, hyams 470. 5 Constantly abbreviated hce. 6 Jacques Arends, pieter muysken, norval Smith, pidgins and Creoles. (Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1995). 7 Arends, muysken, Smith 25-26. 8 Arends, muysken, Smith.
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At first, this was Hawaiian and Pidgin Hawaiian, but later in the century, a new variety of pidgin began to develop.17 While the foreign population of Hawaii, mainly American, increased to about 20 of the total population in 1853, the hawaiian population was reduced. This mixed people played the significant role in the creolization of English in Hawaii. Because this English was assorted with Hawaiian words and probably mispronounced by most whites, this jargon was sometimes called hapa haole, which means half white or half-foreign.18 While on Hawaiian plantations, as Bickerton claims, the original plantation language was, and remained for several decades, more. Because the sugar and later also pineapple plantations were socially and linguistically isolated, holm contends that. Workers were segregated into camps by ethnic group; here they maintained their proposal languages, but they needed the pidgin to communicate with foremen and with other assignment ethnic groups. After leaving the plantations, many settled in multi-ethnic urban areas and brought the pidgin with them.20. This example shows how the pidgin was spread over the country. But the kind of English they spoke was influenced by the pidgin English earlier brought to hawaii, by the hawaiian spoken by their parents, and by their own first languages, especially portuguese.21 by the turn of the century, a new Hawaii pidgin English began.
Since 1959 they have been the 50th state of the United States, with their capital Honolulu on the Island of Oahu. English is the administrative and general language of the state, and has been the language of education for over a century.12 Hawaiis population of about one million is of mixed backgrounds, most of them are descendants of Asian immigrants: caucasian, filipino, hawaiian, japanese and Chinese.13. 70 years later, almost all of the states inhabitants speak either the dialect or Standard English or both.14. Hawaii was first visited by europeans in 1778 for with the arrival of an English explorer, captain James cook, who named this place the sandwich Islands, after the earl of Sandwich. He also observed in 1789 that the hawaiians spoke their language to the English omitting conjunctions and articles when talking to each other, what indicates that this was rather foreigner talk than pidgin.15 At the beginning of the 19th century, new England whalers began. Afterwards, the first sugarcane plantation was established in 1835, and the rapidly expanding industry brought again thousands of labourers from other countries like china, portugal, japan, korea, puerto rico, russia, spain or the Philippines.16 Thus, the population started mixing. With so many nationalities, a common language was needed on the plantations.
simplified compared to the lexifier. But not all simplified languages are pidgin. A definition of a pidgin should include that pidgins have no first language speakers; they have to be learnt. Moreover, they have structural norms, are used by at least two groups, and they are usually incoherent for speakers of the language from which the lexicon derives.7. Turning to creoles, one striking difference from pidgins is that creoles do have native speakers. When children start learning a pidgin as their first language and it becomes the mother tongue of a community, it is called a creole.8 Therefore, extended pidgins begin to attain native speakers, actually this occurred in urban environments, where speakers from different ethnic groups have. This expansion process is known technically as creolization.9 Concluding, creole languages are different from usual languages in coming into existence at some point of time.10 like a pidgin, a creole is a distinct language which has taken most of its vocabulary from another language, the. Unlike a pidgin, however, a creole is not restricted in use, and is like any other language in its full range of functions. By the way, the terms pidgin and creole are technical terms used by linguists, and not necessarily applied by speakers of the language. For example, speakers of hce call theirs Pidgin with a capital.11.
Encyclopaedia britannica once described Pidgin English as an unruly bastard jargon, filled with nursery imbecilities, vulgarisms and roles corruptions.3 But it no longer uses such a definition. Recently, for example scholars recall that pidgins mirror human creative linguistic ability.4. Now this course work should deal with Hawaii creole English, starting with a short definition of pidgin and creole languages and then turning to some background information about the hawaiian Islands, which is quite important to understand the context of language developments. Afterwards, hawaii creole English5 is examined with regard to consonants, vowels, intonation as well as phonology, grammar, semantics and pragmatics. Furthermore, it is compared with Hawaiian, the original language of Hawaii, and Hawaii pidgin English. As a conclusion, one could summarize the use of studying pidgin and creole language with the help of a few new aspects, and briefly discuss the feature of decreolization in Hawaii, if there is some. The aim of this course work should be to evaluate the sociolinguistic approach of Hawaii with the linguistic facts of hce, noting also the expansion of the language.
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Table of Contents. Background information about the hawaiian Islands. Hawaii creole English.1 Consonants.2 Vowels.3 Intonation and Phonology.4 Grammatical diary features.5 Semantics and Pragmatics. Hawaii pidgin English. Hawaii creole English. Introduction, pidgins and Creoles are not full or real languages.1. Pidgins and Creoles seem to have negative connotations. Like mühlhäusler argues in his abstract, the history of examining pidgin and creole languages can be seen as a consequence of this view. Rather they are broken English/French (the popular view marginal languages (Reineke ludersprachen (prostitute languages an expression used by nazi linguists parasitic systems (Chomsky).2 Nowadays, this opinion Mühlhäusler criticized is nevertheless disproved and antiquated.