In due course, they will be able to draw on such grammar in their own writing. Rules for effective discussions should be agreed with and demonstrated for pupils. They should help to develop and evaluate them, with the expectation that everyone takes part. Pupils should be helped to consider the opinions of others. Role play can help pupils to identify with and explore characters and to try out the language they have listened. Writing - transcription Spelling - see english appendix 1 Pupils should be taught to: spell: words containing each of the 40 phonemes already taught common exception words the days of the week name the letters of the alphabet: naming the letters of the alphabet. Pupils should be shown how to segment spoken words into individual phonemes and then how to represent the phonemes by the appropriate grapheme(s). It is important to recognise that phoneme-grapheme correspondences (which underpin spelling) are more variable than grapheme-phoneme correspondences (which underpin reading).
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Reading - comprehension Pupils should be taught to: develop pleasure in reading, motivation to read, vocabulary and understanding by: listening to and discussing review a wide range of poems, stories and non-fiction at a level beyond that at which they can read independently being encouraged. Pupils vocabulary should be developed when they listen to books heart read aloud and when they discuss what they have heard. Such vocabulary can also feed into their writing. Knowing the meaning of more words increases pupils chances of understanding when they read by themselves. The meaning of some new words should be introduced to pupils before they start to read on their own, so that these unknown words do not hold up their comprehension. However, once pupils have already decoded words successfully, the meaning of those that are new to them can be discussed with them, thus contributing to developing their early skills of inference. By listening frequently to stories, poems and non-fiction that they cannot yet read for themselves, pupils begin to understand how written language can be structured in order, for example, to build surprise in narratives or to present facts in non-fiction. Listening to and discussing information books and other non-fiction establishes the foundations for their learning in other subjects. Pupils should be shown some of the processes for finding out information. Through listening, pupils also start to learn how language sounds and increase their vocabulary and awareness of grammatical structures.
The number, order and choice of exception words taught will vary according to the phonics programme being used. Ensuring that pupils are aware of the gpcs they contain, however unusual these are, supports spelling later. Young readers encounter words that they have not seen before much more frequently than experienced readers do, and they may not know supermarket the meaning of some of these. Practice at reading such words by sounding and blending can provide opportunities not only for pupils to develop confidence in their decoding skills, but also for teachers to explain the meaning and thus develop pupils vocabulary. Pupils should be taught how to read words with suffixes by being helped to build on the root words that they can read already. Pupils reading and rereading of books that are closely matched to their developing phonic knowledge and knowledge of common exception words supports their fluency, as well as increasing their confidence in their reading skills. Fluent word reading greatly assists comprehension, especially when pupils come to read longer books.
This is because they need to encode the sounds they hear in words (spelling skills develop the physical skill needed for handwriting, and learn how to organise their ideas in writing. Pupils entering year 1 who have not yet met the early learning goals for literacy should continue to follow their schools curriculum for the early years foundation Stage to develop their word reading, spelling and language skills. However, these pupils should follow the year 1 programme of study in terms of the books they listen to and discuss, so that they develop their vocabulary and understanding of grammar, as well as their knowledge more generally across the curriculum. If they are still struggling to decode and spell, they need to be taught to do this urgently through a rigorous and systematic phonics programme so that they catch up rapidly. Teachers should ensure that their teaching develops pupils oral vocabulary as well as their ability to understand and use a variety of grammatical structures, giving particular support to pupils whose oral language skills are insufficiently developed. Year 1 programme of study reading - word reading Pupils should be taught to: apply phonic knowledge and skills as the route to decode words respond speedily with the correct sound to graphemes (letters or groups of letters) for all 40 phonemes, including, where applicable. As soon as they can read words comprising golf the year 1 gpcs accurately and speedily, they should move on to the year 2 programme of study for word reading.
The understanding that the letter(s) on the page represent the sounds in spoken words should underpin pupils reading and spelling of all words. This includes common words containing unusual gpcs. The term common exception words is used throughout the programmes of study for such words. Alongside this knowledge of gpcs, pupils need to develop the skill of blending the sounds into words for reading and establish the habit of applying this skill whenever they encounter new words. This will be supported by practice in reading books consistent with their developing phonic knowledge and skill and their knowledge of common exception words. At the same time they will need to hear, share and discuss a wide range of high-quality books to develop a love of reading and broaden their vocabulary. Pupils should be helped to read words without overt sounding and blending after a few encounters. Those who are slow to develop this skill should have extra practice. Pupils writing during year 1 will generally develop at a slower pace than their reading.
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Schools are not required by law to teach the example content apartment in square brackets or the content indicated as being non-statutory. Spoken language years 1. Spoken language, pupils should be taught to: listen and respond appropriately to adults and their peers ask relevant questions to extend their understanding and knowledge use relevant strategies to build their vocabulary articulate and justify answers, arguments and opinions give well-structured descriptions, explanations and narratives. The content should be taught at a level appropriate to the age of the pupils. Pupils should build on the oral language skills that have been taught in preceding years.
Pupils should be taught to develop their competence in spoken language and listening to enhance the effectiveness of their communication across a range of contexts and to a range of audiences. They should therefore have opportunities to work in groups of different sizes in pairs, small groups, large groups and as a whole class. Pupils should understand how to take turns and when and how to participate constructively in conversations and debates. Teachers should also pay attention to increasing pupils vocabulary, ranging from describing their immediate world and feelings to developing a broader, deeper and richer vocabulary to discuss abstract concepts and a wider range of topics, and enhancing their knowledge about language as a whole. Pupils should receive constructive feedback on their spoken language and listening, not only to improve their knowledge and skills but also to establish secure foundations for effective spoken language in their studies at primary school, helping them to achieve in secondary education and beyond. Key stage 1 - year 1 During year 1, teachers should build on work from the early years foundation stage, making sure that pupils can sound and blend unfamiliar printed words quickly and accurately using the phonic knowledge and skills that they have already learnt. Teachers should also ensure that pupils continue to learn new grapheme-phoneme correspondences (GPCs) and revise and consolidate those learnt earlier.
References to developing pupils vocabulary are also included in the appendices. Pupils should be taught to control their speaking and writing consciously and to use Standard English. They should be taught to use the elements of spelling, grammar, punctuation and language about language listed. This is not intended to constrain or restrict teachers creativity, but simply to provide the structure on which they can construct exciting lessons. A non-statutory glossary is provided for teachers. Throughout the programmes of study, teachers should teach pupils the vocabulary they need to discuss their reading, writing and spoken language.
It is important that pupils learn the correct grammatical terms in English and that these terms are integrated within teaching. School curriculum, the programmes of study for English are set out year-by-year for key stage 1 and two-yearly for key stage. The single year blocks at key stage 1 reflect the rapid pace of development in word reading during these 2 years. Schools are, however, only required to teach the relevant programme of study by the end of the key stage. Within each key stage, schools therefore have the flexibility to introduce content earlier or later than set out in the programme of study. In addition, schools can introduce key stage content during an earlier key stage if appropriate. All schools are also required to set out their school curriculum for English on a year-by-year basis and make this information available online. Attainment targets, by the end of each key stage, pupils are expected to know, apply and understand the matters, skills and processes specified in the relevant programme of study.
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Writing down ideas fluently depends on effective transcription: that is, on spelling quickly and accurately through assignment knowing the relationship between sounds and letters (phonics) and understanding the morphology (word structure) and orthography (spelling structure) of words. Effective composition involves articulating and communicating ideas, and then organising them coherently for a reader. This requires clarity, awareness of the audience, purpose and context, and an increasingly wide knowledge of vocabulary and grammar. Writing also depends on fluent, legible and, eventually, speedy handwriting. Spelling, vocabulary, grammar, punctuation and glossary. The 2 statutory appendices on spelling and on vocabulary, grammar and punctuation give an overview of the specific features that should be included in teaching the programmes of study. Opportunities for teachers to enhance pupils vocabulary arise naturally from their reading and writing. As vocabulary increases, teachers should show pupils how to understand the relationships between words, how to understand nuances in meaning, and how to develop their understanding of, and ability to use, figurative language. They should also teach pupils how to work out and clarify the meanings of unknown words and words with more than 1 meaning.
All pupils must be encouraged to read widely across both fiction and non-fiction to develop their knowledge of themselves and the world they live in, to establish an appreciation and love of reading, and to gain knowledge across the curriculum. Reading widely and often increases pupils vocabulary because they encounter words they would rarely hear or use in everyday speech. Reading also feeds pupils imagination and opens up a treasure house of wonder and joy for curious young minds. It is essential that, by the end of their primary education, all pupils are able to read fluently, and with confidence, in any subject in their forthcoming secondary education. The programmes of study for writing at key stages 1 and 2 are constructed similarly to those for reading: transcription (spelling and handwriting) assignments composition (articulating ideas and structuring them in speech and writing). It is essential that teaching develops pupils competence in these 2 dimensions. In addition, pupils should be taught how to plan, revise and evaluate their writing. These aspects of writing have been incorporated into the programmes of study for composition.
spoken language across the 6 years of primary education form part of the national curriculum. These are reflected and contextualised within the reading and writing domains which follow. Reading, the programmes of study for reading at key stages 1 and 2 consist of 2 dimensions: word reading comprehension (both listening and reading it is essential that teaching focuses on developing pupils competence in both dimensions; different kinds of teaching are needed for each. Skilled word reading involves both the speedy working out of the pronunciation of unfamiliar printed words (decoding) and the speedy recognition of familiar printed words. Underpinning both is the understanding that the letters on the page represent the sounds in spoken words. This is why phonics should be emphasised in the early teaching of reading to beginners (ie unskilled readers) when they start school. Good comprehension draws from linguistic knowledge (in particular of vocabulary and grammar) and on knowledge of the world. Comprehension skills develop through pupils experience of high-quality discussion with the teacher, as well as from reading and discussing a range of stories, poems and non-fiction.
Spoken language underpins the development of reading and writing. The quality and variety of language that pupils hear and speak are vital for developing their vocabulary and grammar and their understanding for reading and writing. Teachers should therefore ensure the continual development of pupils confidence and competence in spoken language and listening skills. Pupils should develop a capacity to explain their understanding of books and other reading, and to prepare their ideas before they write. They must be assisted in making their thinking clear to themselves as well as to others, and teachers should ensure that pupils build secure foundations by using discussion to probe and remedy their misconceptions. Pupils should also be taught to understand and use the conventions for discussion and debate. All pupils should be enabled to participate shredder in and gain knowledge, skills and understanding associated with the artistic practice of drama. Pupils should be able to adopt, create and sustain a range of roles, responding appropriately to others in role.
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Purpose of study, english has a pre-eminent place in education and in society. A high-quality education in English will teach pupils to speak and write fluently so that they can communicate their ideas and emotions to others, and through their reading and listening, others can communicate with them. Through reading in particular, pupils have a chance to develop culturally, emotionally, intellectually, socially and spiritually. Literature, especially, plays a key role in such development. Reading also enables pupils both to acquire knowledge and to build on what they already know. All the skills of language are essential to participating fully as a member of society; pupils who do not learn to speak, plan read and write fluently and confidently are effectively disenfranchised. Aims, the overarching aim for English in the national curriculum is to promote high standards of language and literacy by equipping pupils with a strong command of the spoken and written language, and to develop their love of literature through widespread reading for enjoyment. The national curriculum for English aims to ensure that all pupils: read easily, fluently and with good understanding develop the habit of reading widely and often, for both pleasure and information acquire a wide vocabulary, an understanding of grammar and knowledge of linguistic conventions for. Spoken language, the national curriculum for English reflects the importance of spoken language in pupils development across the whole curriculum cognitively, socially and linguistically.