Within Russia the arguements between Trotsky and Stalin were also never-ending. Orwell mirrors this in the situation between Snowball and Napoleon, saying how "These two disagreed at every point disagreement was possible". In the same way that Trotsky was exiled to mexico due to Stalin's fears that Trotsky's supporters would assasinate him, Snowball was chased out of the farm by napoleon who feared him in a similar way. Orwell wrote 'nineteen Eighty-four' to try and show how political systems can suppress individual freedom. 'nineteen Eighty-four' is a warning for the future that of what society could become should totalitarianism be allowed to achieve dominance. The totalitarian Dystopia in 'nineteen Eighty-four' is inescapable for those who suffer under it and is constantly changing for the worst. The world of 'nineteen Eighty-four' is a model of Orwell's idea of a totalitarian state that has evolved into its ultimate form.
Animal Farm Chapter i summary and Analysis Gradesaver
The fact that Napoleon sends Boxer off to his death signals to the letter reader how corrupt this Stalinesque figure has become. Boxer's demise illustrates what can happen to those who have blind trust in their rulers. The dogs in 'Animal Farm' are a metaphor for the terror State which Stalin created in Russia as a means of keeping his political opponents in order. They are a tool of oppression for both Jones and Napoleon. Their lack of loyalty to Animalism right from the start puts the whole principles of Animalism into question. If "All animals are comrades" then why do the dogs attack the rats at the first meeting in the barn? The gradual changing of the seven Commandments of Animalism is one of the main devices which Orwell uses when illustrating to the reader the extent of the betrayal of the revolution. The commandments, which were themselves a crude simplification of Old Major's teachings, were altered by Squealer in order to suit Napoleon's requirements. The fact that even these blatant changes went almost unnoticed by many of the Animals shows how little they really understood Old Major's teachings and casts further doubt on Old Major's supposed "wisdom". The constant arguing between Snowball and Napoleon over almost every issue (most notably the windmill) on Animal Farm caused great tension.
In 'Animal Farm' Orwell closely follows Napoleon's rise to pdf power and illustrates to the reader how Napoleon used cunning and brute force to gain and maintain power on Animal Farm. Orwell is keen to try and show how evil Stalin was and how far removed the way he ran Russia was from the original Marxist Socialist beliefs which had been the inspiration for the revolution in the first place. The character Boxer in 'Animal Farm' represents the typical loyal, hard working, man in Russia. His name originates from the boxer Rebellion in China which signalled the rise of Communsim in China. Orwell shows Boxer as being an honest worker who follows Animalism faithfully without fully understanding its more intricate details. Boxer is of limited intelligence and has complete trust in the pigs. His maxims "Napoleon is always right" and "I must work harder" are ultimately his downfall - he works himself to exhaustion and is sent off to the knackers yard by napoleon, not realising his fate until it is too late. The example of Boxer is used by Orwell to show to the reader that even the most loyal and honest people suffer under such a brutal regime.
Orwell also describes him as being "brilliant and inventive" in Chapter. Snowball is also shown to have a darker side - the fact that he supported Napoleon's seizure of the apples shows that he is also susceptible to greed. Orwell clearly preferred Trotsky to Stalin, but saw him as merely the lesser of two evils - the main difference between the two being that Stalin used terror and force in order to assert his authority over the animals and Trotsky main support was gained. Snowball's collaboration with Napoleon leads us to wonder whether life for the animals would really have been much better under Snowball than it was under Napoleon. Orwell's attitude towards Stalin is hinted at even in the naming of his equivalent in the book. 'napoleon' was the name of a famous French revolutionary leader who tyrannised his people and was regarded by some as being the Anti-Christ. As far as Orwell was concerned, Stalin represented the main force behind the threat to true socialism. Stalin claimed to be committed to making a fair and equal society but Orwell saw him in a very different light.
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Orwell deliberately contrasts the improving way of life for the animals after the revolution with the poor lives they had under Jones. He also draws parallels between Jones's drunkenness and the drunkenness of the pigs after they had moved into the house. Jones and Napoleon are as bad as each other - both exploit the animals for his own benefit : they are typical all-powerful dictators motivated solely by self-interest. Orwell's attitude towards religion is shown through the way that he presents Moses the raven who symbolises organised religion in Russia. Orwell is very critical of religion, describing Moses as being "a spy, a tale, bearer but also a clever talker". At first Moses was loyal to jones, just as the russian Church had been to the czarist Regime. Orwell showed how Moses's tales of a heaven called "Sugarcandy mountain" were useful to jones as a way of keeping the animals in order - religion gave them hopes of a better life after they died and their belief made them more willing to accept.
Religion was contrary to the beliefs of Socialism and so the Church was heavily opposed after the revolution - hence moses' disappearence. Moses's return in Chapter ix represents the way in which Stalin allowed religion to re-establish itself in Russia as he realised that he could use it, just as Nicolas ii had, as a way of pacifying the animals. Orwell showed religion to be a both a crutch for the animals to lean on when times were bad (gave them unrealistic hopes for the future and also as a means of preventing rebellion against authority (whether it be czarist or Communist). Orwell's views about Trotsky were mixed resume and these contrasting feelings are shown in the way he describes Snowball (who represents Trotsky in the book). Snowball is shown to have been a key factor in the success of the battle of the cowshed - his bravery was inspirational to animals around him.
He is presented as being a kindly, wise, natural leader who has a dream about a utopia where 'all animals are equal' (Ch. Orwell shows Old Major in a sympathetic light - old Major is seen as having good intentions but too much of a naive idealism to realise that not all animals share the same public-spiritedness that he has. Revolution leads to power, and once power is achieved it is prone to being abused. Orwell himself believed that revolution was not the answer - he believed that revolution was not a way of changing society : it was in fact merely a way of keeping it the same. Revolutions often have good intentions and provide new faces with a new rhetoric but soon it is hard to tell the new faces from the old. The answer according to Orwell was reform, not revolution : Reform really changes.
Orwell believed that The left in Russia had been tricked into revolution by its enemies. Farmer Jones represents czar Nicolas ii who was the leader of Russia before the revolution. Right at the start of the book orwell shows Jones as being a drunk, neglectful Farmer who cares very little about his animals. The farm was in a terrible state - "the fields were full of weeds, the buildings wanted roofing, the hedges were neglected, and the animals were underfed. Orwell clearly wanted to show that Nicolas was a bad ruler who ran Russia for his personal benefit only. The animals were clearly oppressed and had good reason to want change.
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The pigs straight away take their places "immediately in front of the general platform" (Ch. I) when the animals meet to hear Old Major's speech, thus signalling the fact that they are seen as more important than other animals. It is the pigs who take it upon themselves to direct the revolution, and it is they who assume leadership after Jones had been driven out. Animal Farm follows the events of the russian revolution quite closely with characters from the book representing real life people or groups. The way that Orwell presents these real-life people in the book gives an insight into his political feelings. Old Major represents a mixture of Marx and Lenin. He preaches the marxist Doctrine of revolutionary socialism and provides the basic beliefs which later become the seven Commandments.
What started off as a philosophical set of ideas by karl Marx was transformed into a means of propaganda by Stalin. In 'Animal Farm' the essay theory of Animalism is drawn up into seven commandments exclusively by Snowball, Squealer and Napoleon. Animalism quickly becomes a means of breeding such a great fear of man into the animals so that they would become even more determined to work hard. Orwell is attacking Stalin for betraying the revolution to suit his own ends. Orwell hints at the shortcomings of Old Major's Marxist teachings in a number of subtle ways. The supposition that all animals are "comrades" is undermined straight away by the fact that the dogs and cats openly show hostility to the rats, who "only by a swift dash for their holes" escape from the dogs with their lives. A second thing which undermines the Animalist maxim that "All animals are equal" is the fact that even before the revolution there is evidence of a basic hierarchical society.
into jones' house, drink alcohol and engage in trade with the other farms (all things which Old Major had specifically urged them not to do). Orwell's message is that any society which has leaders with absolute power is ultimately doomed to failure due to the inevitability of leaders manipulating power for their own personal benefit. Orwell mocks the pretence that any such society could be regarded as being fair or equal - hence addition of the suffix "but some animals are more equal than others" to the original commandment "All animals are equal". The philosophy of 'Animalism' in 'Animal Farm' quite clearly is designed to represent Marxist-Communism. The parallels between the commandment "Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy" and Marxism's hatred of Capitalism is obvious.
The actions of the communists in Spain exposed to him how false the idea was that Russia was a socialist State. He then went on to write Animal Farm as a way to remind people about the true facts of the russian revolution and the nature of Stalin's rise to power, becoming a totalitarian dictator. Essentially Orwell wanted to save socialism from Communism. It was the realisation of Orwell's fears about Stalinist Russia and the rise of Totalitarianism that inspired him to write his final novel 'nineteen Eighty-four' - an Anti-Utopian novel depicting a world where totalitarianism had taken over. Orwell wrote 'animal Farm' primarily as an allegory of the russian revolution thinly disguised as an animal revelation fable. Orwell specifically had Russia in mind but also draws from his experiences in Spain to show that all well-meant societies are at risk. The major theme of 'Animal Farm' is the betrayal of the russian revolution and the way that good will can fall prey to ambition, selfishness and hypocrisy.
Opinions : Essays : Orwell's Political Messages / george
Orwell once said that he wanted to "make political writing into an art". What are the political messages he expresses in his books 'nineteen Eighty-four 'animal Farm' and 'homage to catalonia'? Orwell's ambition as a political author was to "make political writing into an art" Why assignment i write. He saw his duty as being to "attack the right, but not to flatter the left". His political views were shaped by his experiences of Socialism, totalitarianism and Imperialism all over the world. In his essay 'why i write' (1946) he admitted that "Every line of serious work that I have written since 1936 has been written, directly or indirectly against Totalitarianism and for Democratic Socialism, as i understand it". Orwell wrote about his experiences of the Spanish civil War in 'homage to catalonia'. During the war Orwell began to realise the true nature of Stalin's rule in Russia.