This is Maslows understanding of neurosis. . Perhaps you went through a war as a kid. Now you have everything your heart needs - yet you still find yourself obsessing over having enough money and keeping the pantry well-stocked. . Or perhaps your parents divorced when you were young. . Now you have a wonderful spouse - yet you get insanely jealous or worry constantly that they are going to leave you because you are not good enough for them. . you get the picture.
Albert, einstein, biography, biography
A bit later, we look for self-esteem. . Mind you, this is in the first couple of years! Under stressful conditions, or when survival is threatened, we can regress to a lower need level. . When you great career falls flat, you might seek out a little attention. . When your family ups and leaves you, it seems that love is again all you ever wanted. . When you face chapter eleven after a long and happy life, you suddenly cant think of anything except money. These things can occur on a society-wide basis as well: When society suddenly flounders, people start clamoring for a strong leader to take over and make things right. . When the bombs start falling, they look for safety. . When the food stops coming into the stores, their needs become even more basic. Maslow suggested that we can ask people for their philosophy of the future - what would their ideal life or world be like - and get significant information as to what needs they do or do not have covered. If you have significant problems along your development - a period of extreme insecurity or hunger as a child, or the loss of a family member through death or divorce, or significant neglect or abuse - you may fixate on that set of needs for.
Maslow simply extends the homeostatic principle to needs, such as safety, belonging, and gender esteem, that we dont ordinarily think of in these terms. Maslow sees all these needs as essentially survival needs. . even love and esteem are needed for the maintenance of health. . he says we all have these needs built in to us genetically, like instincts. . In fact, he calls them instinctoid - instinct-like - needs. In terms of overall development, we move through these levels a bit like stages. . As newborns, our focus (if not our entire set of needs) is on the physiological. . soon, we begin to recognize that we need to be safe. . soon after that, we crave attention and affection. .
All of the preceding four levels he calls deficit needs, or D-needs. . If you dont have enough of something -. You have a deficit - you feel the need. . But if you get all you need, you feel nothing at all! . In other words, they cease to be motivating. . As the old blues song goes, you dont miss your water till reviews your well runs dry! He also talks about these levels in terms of homeostasis. . Homeostasis is the principle by which your furnace thermostat operates: When it gets too cold, it switches the heat on; When it gets too hot, it switches the heat off. . In the same way, your body, when it lacks a certain substance, develops a hunger for it; When it gets enough of it, then the hunger stops. .
The higher form involves the need for self-respect, including such feelings as confidence, competence, achievement, mastery, independence, and freedom. . Note that this is the higher form because, unlike the respect of others, once you have self-respect, its a lot harder to lose! The negative version of these needs is low self-esteem and inferiority complexes. . Maslow felt that Adler was really onto something when he proposed that these were at the roots of many, if not most, of our psychological problems. . In modern countries, most of us have what we need in regard to our physiological and safety needs. . we, more often than not, have quite a bit of love and belonging, too. . Its a little respect that often seems so very hard to get!
Albert, einstein - facts summary
you might develop a need for writing structure, for order, some limits. Looking at it negatively, you become concerned, not with needs like hunger and thirst, but with your fears and anxieties. . In the ordinary American adult, this set of needs manifest themselves in the form of our urges to have a home in a safe neighborhood, a little job security and a nest egg, a good retirement plan and a bit of insurance, and. The love and belonging needs. . When physiological needs and safety needs are, by and large, taken care of, a third layer starts to show. . you begin to feel the need for friends, a sweetheart, children, affectionate relationships in general, even a sense of community. . looked at negatively, you become increasing susceptible to loneliness and social anxieties.
In our day-to-day life, we exhibit these needs in our desires to marry, have a family, be a part of a community, a member of a church, a brother in the fraternity, a part of a gang or a bowling club. . It is also a part of what we look for in a career. Next, we begin to look for a little self-esteem. . Maslow noted two versions of esteem needs, a lower one and a higher one. . The lower one is the need for the respect of others, the need for status, fame, glory, recognition, attention, reputation, appreciation, dignity, even dominance. .
likewise, if you are very very thirsty, but someone has put a choke hold on you and you cant breath, which is more important? . The need to breathe, of course. . On the other hand, sex is less powerful than any of these. . Lets face it, you wont die if you dont get it! Maslow took this idea and created his now famous hierarchy of needs. Beyond the details of air, water, food, and sex, he laid out five broader layers: the physiological needs, the needs for safety and security, the needs for love and belonging, the needs for esteem, and the need to actualize the self, in that order.
These include the needs we have for oxygen, water, protein, salt, sugar, calcium, and other minerals and vitamins. . They also include the need to maintain a pH balance (getting too acidic or base will kill you) and temperature (98.6 or near to it). . Also, theres the needs to be active, to rest, to sleep, to get rid of wastes (CO2, sweat, urine, and feces to avoid pain, and to have sex. . Maslow believed, and research supports him, that these are in fact individual needs, and that a lack of, say, vitamin c, will lead to a very specific hunger for things which have in the past provided that vitamin c -. I guess the cravings that some pregnant women have, and the way in which babies eat the most foul tasting baby food, support the idea anecdotally. The safety and security needs. . When the physiological needs are largely taken care of, this second layer of needs comes into play. . you will become increasingly interested in finding safe circumstances, stability, protection. .
Albert, einstein - wikipedia
During this period of his life, he came into contact with the many european intellectuals that were immigrating to the us, and Brooklyn in particular, at that time - people like adler, Fromm, horney, as well as several Gestalt and Freudian presentation psychologists. Maslow served as the chair of the psychology department at Brandeis from 1951 to 1969. . While there he met Kurt Goldstein, who had originated the idea of self-actualization in his famous book, the Organism (1934). . It was also here that he began his crusade for a humanistic psychology - something ultimately much more important to him than his own theorizing. He spend his final years in semi-retirement in California, until, on June 8 1970, he died of a heart attack after years of ill health. Theory, one of the many interesting things Maslow noticed while he worked with monkeys early in his career, was that some needs take precedence over others. . For example, if you are hungry and thirsty, you will tend to try to take care of the thirst first. . After all, you can do without food for weeks, but you can only do without water for a couple of days! . Thirst is a stronger need than hunger. .
Abe and Bertha went on to have two daughters. He and Bertha moved to wisconsin so that he could review attend the University of Wisconsin. . Here, he became interested in psychology, and his school work began to improve dramatically. He spent time there working with Harry harlow, who is famous for his experiments with baby rhesus monkeys and attachment behavior. He received his ba in 1930, his ma in 1931, and his PhD in 1934, all in psychology, all from the University of Wisconsin. . a year after graduation, he returned to new York to work with. Thorndike at Columbia, where maslow became interested in research on human sexuality. He began teaching full time at Brooklyn College. .
Russia. . His parents, hoping for the best for their children in the new world, pushed him hard for academic success. . Not surprisingly, he became very lonely as a boy, and found his refuge in books. To satisfy his parents, he first studied law at the city college of New York (ccny). . After three semesters, he transferred to cornell, and then back to ccny. . he married Bertha goodman, his first cousin, against his parents wishes. .
Meg, murry and, calvin, o'keefe called, the time quartet. After finally being published, the book won many prestigious awards, including the newbery medal, sequoyah book award, and the lewis Carroll Shelf Award, and was runner-up for the hans Christian Andersen Award. L'engle came up with the idea for the novel after reading about Albert Einstein's theories of time and space while traveling through the landscape of Upper New York during the springtime. These dual themes of beauty and science create two of the foundations for the novel. Her goal was to make a world that was "creative and yet believable" and as a result, l'engle grounds the mystical aspects of the novel in actual theories of physics. The novel is further grounded in a christian framework built around l'engle's own understandings of Christian universalism - the notion that all human beings have the ability to be saved. These ideas of Christianity are scattered throughout the book, as are"s from the bible, including the book of Isaiah and the book of Romans. This reliance on an ideal of liberal theology, as well as some of the book's more mystical and magical elements, has led a wrinkle in Time to be banned in some school districts, especially in more conservative parts of the United States. How to cite m/a-wrinkle-in-time in mla format.
Biography - 420 Words
The Stephen Hawking's Universe website has been retired from pbs. Stephen Hawking's Universe was a six-part astronomical documentary series featuring the theoretical physicist Stephen Hawking. The series discussed the history of astronomy in addition to real black holes and dark matter. The program included computer models of the theories, interviews with leading astronomers and scientists, as well as commentary from Hawking himself. Check the, wnet website for more on how to support wnet content. A Wrinkle in Time is Madeleine l'engle's first and most popular book for young adults. It was written in the late 1950s and early 1960s, though the book was rejected numerous times by publishers before finally being published in 1962, just before l'engle was about to give up on the manuscript once and for all. It is the first in a series featuring.